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是什么让我们摧毁了世界第四大湖泊 – 译学馆
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是什么让我们摧毁了世界第四大湖泊

Why We Destroyed the World's 4th Largest Lake

This video was made possible by Brilliant.
本视频由Brilliant赞助
Learn with Brilliant for 20 % off by being one
注册Briloant.org/reallifelore
of the first 200 people to sign up at Brilliant.org/reallifelore
前200名可享八折优惠
During the time that the British ruled India
在英国殖民印度时期
The British Government became concerned about the number
英政府担心德里地区的
of venomous snakes around Delhi
大量毒蛇可能造成隐患
So they began offering a reward for every dead cobra that people brought them.
因此 政府开始向市民悬赏眼镜蛇 对上交蛇尸者给予奖赏
This worked out OK for a time
这在一段时间里行之有效
Until smart people began realizing
直到一些脑子活络的人意识到
that you could simply breed the snakes in large numbers
可以通过养殖毒蛇
And turn them all in for a reward
以获得政府悬赏
When the British found out about this
英政府注意到这一点后
they cancelled the whole program and
叫停了整个项目
the snake breeders let their now worthless cobras go
于是 无法带来收益的眼镜蛇被放生
and as a result the cobra population actually increased
城内的眼镜蛇反而增多
Ever since then whenever somebody tries to solve a problem
从此以后 每当有人尝试解决问题
with a solution that end up making the original problem even worse
最终反而使事态每况愈下
the situation has been called the cobra effect
这种情境就被称作眼镜蛇效应
And one of the worst cobra effects in history
而历史上影响最恶劣的一个例子
took place here in the Soviet Union during the last half of the twentieth century
发生在 二十世纪下半叶的前苏联
on a lake that used to be called The Aral Sea
一个曾被称为咸海的湖泊
For all of recorded human history
在现今可考的史证中
The Aral Sea was the world’s fourth largest lake
咸海是世界第四大湖泊
and a vital piece of the local ecosystem that surrounded it.
是周边地区生态系统中至关重要的一环
It was roughly the same size as Ireland
大约与爱尔兰一样大
And supported a thriving community of fishing towns and port cities.
支持着周边市镇繁荣的港口和捕鱼业
And when you look at different world maps over the past few centuries
而且 在过去几个世纪的各种世界地图上
You’ll always see something there
总是能看见它
and even when you look at pictures taken
甚至在上世纪
from airplanes in the 1960’s
六十年代的航拍图上
You can clearly see that it’s there
也能清晰地看到咸湖
But then compare all of these images with an image taken
但是将所有此类图像材料
by NASA just last year
与NASA去年拍摄的图像对比
This is the same lake in the same place today So,
同一地点 这是如今的盐湖
what happened to all of it?
那么 背后的原因是什么呢?
Tracing satellite images back
追踪过去几十年的卫星图像
from the past few decades can start to unravel part of the mystery
可以初步解开谜团
These pictures show that the lake began drying up
图像显示 咸湖在六十年代以后
in the 1960’s, when it was last full So,
开始逐步干涸
what caused it all to start in the first place?
那么 一开始造成干涸的原因是什么呢?
The short answer is Stalin But there’s more
斯大林是一大推手
behind the story than just that
但背后还有更深层次的原因
During the soviet unions existence
在前苏联时期
The Aral Sea alone provided 1/6th
咸湖的水产供应
of all the fish in the country
占全国供应总量的六分之一
And employed more than 40,000 people
有四万多名雇员
but a few poor decisions ended
然而 几个糟糕的决策
up erasing this entire natural landmark
最终导致了
and all of those jobs from the surface of the Earth
咸湖和这些岗位的消失
You see, this guy named Stalin became the leader of the USSR
斯大林成为苏联的领袖后
And he believed
认为苏联政府能
that his government could transform nature itself to benefit his people
通过改造自然 造福人民
There are two rivers that used to feed the Aral Sea
过去有两条河流汇入咸湖
The Amu Darya in the south And the Syr Darya in the east
南边的阿姆河和东边的锡尔河
Stalin’s plan was to have his
斯大林让工程师
engineers divert water from both of these rivers
改变这两条河流的走向
by digging canals towards new fields
引入新开垦的
that would be planted across Uzbekistan
位于乌兹别克斯坦的
That would begin growing cotton
棉花种植地
The plan was to make cotton
该计划的目的在于 无论如何
a major Soviet export at any cost
也要让棉花成为苏联的主要出口产品
And little regard was given to what would
毫不在意
happen to the Aral and the community surrounding it
对咸湖及周边可能产生的影响
And for a time, it kind of worked
短时间内 这的确有效
By 1988, Uzbekistan became the world’s largest producer of cotton
1988 乌兹别克斯坦成为世界第一大棉花产地
And the Soviets were exporting it across the world
苏联将之输送到世界各地
But it was coming at a massive cost
但代价是惨重的
Those canals that the Soviets began finishing in the 1960’s
苏联在六十年代修建的运河
were not only taking enormous amounts of water from the lake
不仅从咸湖带走了大量的水
but they were also insanely inefficient and leaked constantly
而且持续渗漏 极度低效
As a result,
最后
the fourth largest lake in the world began steadingly drying up
世界第四大湖泊逐步干涸
By 1998, it had shrunk
1998年 缩水到
to just 60 percent of its original size
原有面积的60%
And by 2004,
到2004年
it was down to only 25 percent of its original size
只有原面积的25%
But in addition to this,
除此之外
the other half of the disaster was the rapidly increasing levels of salt
另一灾厄是咸湖
that the lake was getting
快速增长的盐度
What remained of the lake in 2004 was five times saltier
2004年 咸湖的盐度是
than it was back in the 1960’s
六十年代的五倍
Which meant that basically the entire ecosystem and
意味着咸湖的整个生态系统和
the creatures that once lived in and around it
该生态环境中的生物基本消失殆尽
were gone the larges coastal port town named Heralsk
周边最大的海港镇 Heralsk
That was the center of the lake’s fishing economy
环湖渔业经济圈的中心
was now located over a hundred kilometers away from the water
现今离咸湖百余公里之遥
and was surrounded by dried up, worthless land
被干旱的荒地包围
As the lake receded further, it created a new gigantic desert instead,
咸湖萎缩的同时 一片巨型荒漠
covered
取而代之
in salt that made it worthless for things like agriculture
盐碱化使这片土地不适宜发展农业
But that’s still not the end of the tragedy
而悲剧的事不止于此
Because the lake was often used as a dumping ground
由于湖泊几十年来常被用作
for toxic chemicals and weapons for decades, too
有毒化学物质和废弃武器倾倒场
Now with the lake bed exposed those chemicals
河床受到化学物质的侵蚀
and weapons were just sitting out in the open
武器被随意弃掷 无人问津
and the winds have began kicking all
有害物质都被卷入风中
of this up into huge toxic dust storms
成为巨大的有毒尘暴
that ravage across the landscape
毁坏整个地表
Life around the former Aral Sea today, is a harsh one.
前咸湖区域的生活 十分艰难
Infant moratlity is very high, at 75 deaths per 1,000 births
婴儿死亡率很高 每千名就有七十五名夭亡
If the Aral Sea region were its own country,
假如咸湖是一个国家
that would be the fifth worst rate in the world
那么这个数值会是世界第五高
Even worse than countries like Nigeria or Mali
这比尼日利亚和马里更糟
The cotton boom that was once exploding in Uzbekistan
乌兹别克斯坦一度井喷的棉花种植业
has been challenged by the rampant dust storms
也受阻于猖獗的尘暴
that deposity salt and toxins across their fields
田地被尘暴带来的盐和有害物质污染
Even more water is being used
更多的水被从湖中抽走
from the Aral Sea rivers to wash away the salt
投入到抗盐碱化中
and the lake is just a fraction
咸湖只剩下过去的
of what it once was
微小部分
Down to only 10% of its original size now
大概是过去面积的10%
There are plans to revive the lake
哈萨克斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦
In both Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
都有复兴咸湖的计划
but so far the legacy
但目前
of bad soviet engineering policy still looms high
苏联不完善的工程计划的遗存
over the lives of those who still live here
仍然摧残着那些咸湖地区的生灵
and haven’t fled
他们仍没有逃离
from one of the worst cobra effects in history
这个极恶劣的眼镜蛇效应的阴影
If you want to become an engineer that will hopefully work
想要成为一名能建设
on more successful projects in the future
成功项目的工程师
Two things you absolutely need a solid grasp
数学和物理是
on are math and physics
亟需掌握的
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而Briliant 是学习数理的好帮手
because their courses breakdown concepts into their intuitive principles
因为通过拆解 复杂概念简单易懂
and then build them back up
再加以运用
so you aren’t simply memorizing things
不同于死记硬背
You’re understanding them instead
你是在真正理解这些知识
Whether you want help with understanding the way engineers think
不论是想学习微积分 经典力学等
through courses like calculus, classical mechanics,
以掌握工程师思维模式
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还是想了解逻辑 概率
like logic, probablility, computer science, or more
信息技术等其他科目
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网站全力
of effort into making each and every class as perfect as can be
打造所有课程 使其尽善尽美
and best of all,
更妙的是
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你可以通过在Briliant网站注册
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免费获取部分资源
and then, by being one of the first 200 people
同时 点击简介中同一链接
to use that same link in the description
前200名购买高阶课程
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可享八折优惠 长期有效
And you’ll also be helping to support RealLifeLore
您对RealLifeLore的支持
at the same time
是对我们最大的帮助
Thanks for watching, and I’ll see you again next week
多谢观赏 下周再见

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视频概述

从大湖的消失看眼镜蛇效应

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Grace

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJeobqc4mFk

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