ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

如何避免在压力之下发挥失常? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

如何避免在压力之下发挥失常?

Why we choke under pressure -- and how to avoid it | Sian Leah Beilock

One of the most humiliating things
最让人难堪的事情之一
that you can say about someone is “they choked.”
就是你可以形容别人“发挥失常了”
And boy, do I know that feeling.
天啊 我太了解这种感觉了
Growing up, I was an avid athlete.
从小到大 我都是个狂热的运动员
My main sport was soccer, and I was a goalkeeper,
我最喜欢踢足球 在球队里当守门员
which is both the best
球场上 守门员的位置是最好的
and the worst position on the field.
同时也是最坏的
You see, when you’re a goalie, you get this special uniform,
作为一个守门员 你可以穿特殊的制服
you get all the glory
你会得到所有荣光
for a great shot saved;
因为一个成功的扑救
but you also get the grief
然而 你也会感到悲伤
when you land a shot in the goal.
当你没有守住球的时候
When you’re a goalie, all eyes are on you,
作为守门员 会受到万众瞩目
and with that comes the pressure.
随之而来的还有压力
I distinctly remember one game in high school.
我清楚地记得高中时的一场比赛
I was playing for the California state team
我为加利福尼亚州队出战
which is part of the Olympic Development Program.
这支队伍属于奥林匹克发展项目
I was having a great game…
我当时表现得很好
until I realized that the national coach was standing right behind me.
当我意识到国家队教练站在我身后
That’s when everything changed.
一切都改变了
In a matter of seconds,
在这几秒钟之内
I went from playing at the top
我的状态和表现从巅峰
to the bottom of my ability.
一下子跌到了谷底
Just knowing that I was being evaluated
单单是知道有人在打量我
changed my performance,
就影响了我的发挥
and forever how I thought about the mental aspect
也彻底地改变了我对心理因素
of how we perform.
影响发挥的这个问题的看法
All of a sudden,
突然
the ball seemed to go in slow motion,
球好像变成了慢动作
and I was fixated on my every move.
而我努力专注于自己的一举一动
The next shot that came I bobbled,
这个球我没有挡下来
but thankfully it didn’t land in the goal.
但好在这个球没有破门
The shot after that, I wasn’t so lucky:
但之后的一个球 我就不那么幸运了
I tipped it right into the net.
我创造了一个乌龙球
My team lost; the national coach walked away.
我们的队伍输了 国家队教练走开了
I choked under the pressure of those evaluative eyes on me.
在他人的打量压力下 我发挥失常了
Just about everyone does it from time to time —
每个人时不时几乎都有这样的时候
there are so many opportunities,
有太多这样的机会
whether it’s taking a test,
无论是考试
giving a talk, pitching to a client
演讲 向客户讲解提案
or that special form of torture
还是一种特殊的折磨形式
I like to call the job interview.
我称之为工作面试
But the question is why.
但问题是为什么呢
Why do we sometimes fail to perform up to our potential under pressure?
为什么我们有时在压力下无法发挥潜力
It’s especially bewildering in the case of athletes
这种情况在运动员中非常普遍
who spend so much time physically honing their craft.
他们进行了大量的体能训练来提高技巧
But what about their minds?
然而他们的心理呢
Not as much.
就没有怎么训练过了
This is true off the playing field as well.
在赛场外也是如此
Whether we’re taking a test or giving a talk,
无论是我们在考试 或是做演讲时
it’s easy to feel like we’re ready — at the top of our game
很容易感觉到我们准备好 有最佳状态了
— and then perform at our worst when it matters most.
结果在最关键的时候却表现得很糟糕
It turns out that rarely do we practice
实际上 我们很少
under the types of conditions we’re actually going to perform under,
在与实战情况相同的条件下练习
and as a result, when all eyes are on us,
结果就是 当所有目光投向在我们时
we sometimes flub our performance.
我们有时就会表现得很糟糕
Of course, the question is, why is this the case?
当然 问题是 为何会这样呢?
And my experience on the playing field —
我在赛场上的经历
and in other important facets of my life —
以及我生命中其他的重要时刻
really pushed me into the field of cognitive science.
是它们让我踏入了认知科学的领域
I wanted to know how we could reach our limitless potential.
我想知道如何才能到达自己无限的潜能
I wanted to understand how we could use our knowledge
我想知道如何运用
of the mind and the brain
心理与大脑的知识
to come up with psychological tools
去运用心理学工具
that would help us perform at our best.
帮助我们发挥出最好的状态
So why does it happen?
那么为什么会这样呢?
Why do we sometimes fail to
为什么在有压力的时候不能
perform up to what we’re capable of
正常发挥呢?
when the pressure is on?
当压力来临之时
It may not be so surprising to hear
这一点并不奇怪
that in stressful situations, we worry.
有压力的情况下 我们会担心
We worry about the situation,
我们担心当下的形势
the consequences, what others will think of us.
担心结果 担心别人的看法
But what is surprising is
但是令人惊讶的是
that we often get in our own way
正因为我们的担心导致对问题过分关注
precisely because our worries prompt us to concentrate too much.
才经常阻碍我们的正常发挥
That’s right — we pay too much attention to what we’re doing.
没错 我们太过关注我们所做的事
When we’re concerned about performing our best,
当我们关心是否能发挥出最好得状态时
we often try and control aspects of what we’re doing
我们通常尝试去控制自己在各方面的表现
that are best left on autopilot,
而那些方面的表现最好顺其自然
outside conscious awareness,
不被意识所控制
and as a result, we mess up.
然后结果就是 我们搞砸了
Think about a situation where you’re shuffling down the stairs.
想一下这个场景 当你正在下楼梯
What would happen if I asked you to think
当我问你 会发生什么
about what you’re doing with your knee
膝盖是怎样运动的
while you’re doing that?
当你做这个动作时
There’s a good chance you’d fall on your face.
很可能你就狠狠摔了一跤
We as humans only have the ability to
作为普通人 我们能
pay attention to so much at once,
同时使用注意力是有限的
which is why, by the way,
也就是说 顺便说一句
it’s not a good idea to drive and talk on the cell phone.
开车时打电话是不好的
And under pressure, when we’re concerned about performing at our best,
压力下 当我们关注是否发挥最好状态时
we can try and control aspects of what we’re doing
我们会尝试去控制自己各方面的表现
that should be left outside conscious control.
包括那些本不该受意识控制的部分
The end result is that we mess up.
这样的结果就是我们搞砸了
My research team and I have studied this phenomenon of overattention,
我和我的研究团队研究了这种过度的现象
and we call it paralysis by analysis.
我们称之为“分析麻痹”
In one study,
某研究中
we asked college soccer players to dribble a soccer ball
我们让大学的足球运动员来运球
and to pay attention to an aspect of their performance
然后要求他们注意自己表现的一个方向
that they would not otherwise attend to.
那个方向是他们之前不曾注意到的
We asked them to pay attention to what side
我们要求他们注意
of the foot was contacting the ball.
自己用脚的哪一侧触球
We showed that performance was slower and more error-prone
我们发现 当要求他们把注意力转移到
when we drew their attention to the step-by-step details
每一个细节时 他们的动作会变慢
of what they were doing.
而且容易出错
When the pressure is on,
当压力出现时
we’re often concerned with performing at our best,
我们常常关心我们如何发挥最好的状态
and as a result we try and control what we’re doing
这导致了我们会尝试控制我们行为各方面
to force the best performance.
来达到最佳的表现
The end result is that we actually screw up.
然而结果总是事与愿违
In basketball,
在篮球运动中
the term”unconscious” is used to describe a shooter who can’t miss.
“无意识”这个术语是形容一个神射手的
And San Antonio Spurs star Tim Duncan has said,
圣安东尼奥马刺队的球星蒂姆·邓肯说过
“ When you have to stop and think,
“当你停下来开始思考
that’s when you mess up.”
就是你搞砸的时候”
In dance, the great choreographer, George Balanchine,
在舞蹈界 伟大的编舞家乔治·巴兰钦
used to urge his dancers,
往往要求他的舞者
“Don’t think, just do.”
“不要思考 专心舞蹈”
When the pressure’s on,
当有压力的时候
when we want to put our best foot forward,
当我们想表现出最好的一面
somewhat ironically,
有些讽刺的是
we often try and control what we’re doing
我们常常会因尝试去控制
in a way that leads to worse performance.
而导致表现很差
So what do we do?
我们该怎么办呢
Knowing that we have this overactive attention,
在意识到了这种过度关注之后
how do we ensure that we perform at our best?
要如何保证我们能够呈现最好的状态呢?
A lot of it comes down to the prefrontal cortex,
这很大程度上归结于前额叶皮层
that front part of our brain that sits over our eyes
就是在我们的眼睛上方 大脑前端的部分
and usually helps us focus in positive ways.
这部分常积极地帮我们集中注意力
It often gets hooked on the wrong things.
但也常常被一些不相关的事情吸引
So how do we unhook it?
那我们该怎么摆脱呢
Something as simple as singing a song,
可以尝试一些小事 比如唱首歌
or paying attention to one’s pinky toe,
或把注意力放在某人小脚趾上
as pro golfer Jack Nicklaus was rumored to do,
职业高尔夫球手杰克·尼克劳斯用这一招
can help us take our mind off those pesky details.
这能帮助我们的大脑摆脱这些恼人的细节
It’s also true that practicing under conditions
同样 我们也可以想象自己在比赛现场
that we’re going to perform under —
有意识地进行模拟练习--
closing the gap between training and competition
缩小训练环境与比赛环境的差距
can help us get used to that feeling of all eyes on us.
能够帮助我们习惯于万众瞩目的感觉
This is true off the playing field as well.
在赛场之外也是如此
Whether it’s getting ready for an exam or preparing for a big talk —
无论是准备一场考试还是准备一场演讲--
one that might have a little pressure associated with it —
题目可能与压力有关--
(Laughter)
(笑声)
getting used to the types
习惯于那种
of situations you’re going to perform under
你将要面对的实际场景
really matters.
真的很重要
When you’re taking a test, close the book,
当你准备考试时 合上书
practice retrieving the answer from memory under timed situations,
练习在有限的时间内从记忆中找出答案
and when you’re giving a talk, practice in front of others.
当你准备演讲时 给自己找一些观众
And if you can’t find anyone who will listen,
如果找不到听众
practice in front of a video camera or even a mirror.
在镜头或者镜子面前练习
The ability to get used to
适应真实环境的能力
what it will feel like can make the difference
往往能决定我们的发挥
in whether we choke or thrive.
是失常还是超常
We’ve also figured out some ways
我们也想出一些方法
to get rid of those pesky worries
来摆脱这些困扰
and self-doubts that tend to creep up in the stressful situations.
摆脱压力状态下容易产生自我怀疑
Researchers have shown that simply jotting down your thoughts and worries
研究表明 简单写下你的想法和顾虑
before a stressful event can help to download them from mind —
在有压力的事情发生前能缓解你的焦虑
make them less likely to pop up in the moment.
降低它们突然出现的可能
It’s kind of like when you wake up in the middle of the night
这很像你在半夜起来
and you’re really worried
你突然很担心
about what you have to do the next day,
明天要做的事情
you’re trying to think about everything you have to accomplish,
并试着思考需要完成的每件事情
and you write it down and then you can go back to sleep.
你把它写下 再睡觉
Journaling, or getting those thoughts down on paper,
写日记 或者把想法写在纸上
makes it less likely they’ll pop up and distract you in the moment.
会减少它们突然出现并让你分心的可能性
The end result is that you can perform your best when it matters most.
这样 你就能在关键时刻发挥出最佳状态
So up until now,
到现在为止
I’ve talked about what happens when we put limits on ourselves
我讲到当我们限制自己能力时会发生的事
and some tips we can use to help perform up to our potential.
以及一些能帮助我们正常发挥的小技巧
But it’s important to remember that
但是要记住
it’s not just our own individual being
不光是我们自身的原因
that can put limits and that can perform poorly;
导致我们表现不佳
our environment has an effect on whether we choke or thrive.
我们的环境也会影响我们是成功还是失常
Our parents, our teachers, our coaches, our bosses all influence
我们的父母 老师 教练 老板都会影响
whether or not we can put our best foot forward when it matters most.
我们在关键时刻能否发挥出色
Take math as an example.
以数学为例
That’s right, I said it: math.
没错 我说的就是 数学
Lots of people profess to choke
很多人学数学时都会感到困难
or are anxious about doing math,
或是焦虑
whether it’s taking a test or
不论是在考试
even calculating the tip on a dinner bill
还是在算晚餐小费
as our smart friends look on.
而身边恰好有数学大神在看着
And it’s quite socially acceptable
整个社会在谈论在数学测试中
to talk about chocking or performing poorly in math.
表现失常或考砸了都持有一种宽容的态度
You don’t hear highly educated people walking
你不会听到受过高等教育的人边走
around talking about the fact
边谈论
or bragging about the fact that they’re not good readers,
或吹嘘自己的阅读能力很差这样的事实
but you hear people all the time bragging about how they’re not math people.
但你常听人“炫耀”他们如何不擅长数学
And unfortunately, in the US,
不幸的是 在美国
this tends to be more so among girls and women
这种情况在女性身上更加常见
than boys and men.
比起男性
My research team and I have tried to understand
我和我的研究团队尝试去了解
where this fear of math comes from,
对数学的恐惧来自于哪里
and we’ve actually peered inside the brains
我们实际上已经窥探过大脑的内部
using functional magnetic resonance imaging,
通过运用功能磁共振成像技术
of people who are worried about math.
来研究人们为什么害怕数学
We’ve shown that math phobia correlates with a concrete visceral sensation
我们发现数学恐惧症与具体内脏感受相关
such as pain, of which we have every right to feel anxious.
比如疼痛 对此我们都会感到焦虑
In fact, when people who are worried about math
实际上 对数学感到焦虑的人
are just getting ready to take a math test —
在为数学考试复习的时候--
they’re not even taking it, they’re just getting ready —
他们还没考试--而是正在准备——
areas of the brain known the be involved
已知的大脑区域内
in our neural pain response are active.
与疼痛相关的神经区域就会被激活
When we say math is painful,
当我们说数学令人痛苦不堪时
there’s some truth to it for some people.
对于某些人而言的确是这样的
But where does this math anxiety come from?
但是对于数学的焦虑感来源于哪里呢
It turns out that math anxiety is contagious.
事实证明 对数学的焦虑是会传染的
When adults are worried about math,
当大人承认对数学感到担忧时
the children around them start worrying, too.
他们身边的孩子也会开始担忧
As young as first grade,
对于小学一年级的孩子
when kids are in classrooms
如果他们老师
w ith teachers who are anxious about their own math ability,
对自己的数学水平感到焦虑
these kids learn less across the school year.
这些孩子在这一学年学到的知识就偏少
And it turns out that this is more prevalent in girls than boys.
事实是 这种现象女孩子比男孩子更常见
At this young age,
在这样小的年纪
kids tend to mimic same-sex adults,
孩子有模仿同性大人的倾向
and at least in the US,
至少在美国
over 90 percent of our elementary school teachers are women.
有超过百分之九十的小学教师是女性
Of course, it’s not just what happens in the classroom.
当然 这不仅仅发生在教室里
Social media plays a big role here, too.
社交媒体也有重要的影响
It wasn’t so long
不久之前
ago that you could purchase a Teen Talk Barbie
你还能买到一个会说话的少女芭比娃娃
that when the cord was pulled, it would say things like,
拉一下线 它就会说这样的话
“Will we ever have enough clothes?”
我们的衣服是永远不够的
and”Math class is tough.”
数学课很难
And just a few years ago,
就在几年前
major retailers were marketing T-shirts at our young girls
大型零售商把这样的T恤卖给年轻的女孩
that read things like,”I’m too pretty to do math,”
上面写着“我太漂亮了 不该做数学”
or,”I’m too pretty to do my homework
或者“我太漂亮了 不该做作业
so my brother does it for me.
所以我哥哥会帮我做”
And let’s not forget about the parents.
当然我们也不要忘了父母
Oh,the parents.
那些父母啊
It turns out that when parents are worried about their own math ability
事实上 如果父母很担心自己的数学能力
and they help their kids a lot with math homework,
而且常常教孩子做数学作业
their kids learn less math across the school year.
那他们孩子这学年的数学学习进度会落后
As one parent put it,
就像一个家长说的
“I judge my first grader’s math homework
“我判断一年级数学作业的难度
by whether it’s a one-glass assignment or a three-glass night.”
是看要花一杯酒 还是三杯酒的时间”
(Laughter)
(笑声)
When adults are anxious about their own math ability,
当成年人对自己的数学能力很担忧时
it rubs off on their kids
也会影响他们的孩子
and it effects whether they chock or thrive.
决定他们表现失常还是超常
But just as we can put limits on others,
但我们能在他人身上添加限制
we can take them off.
也能够把它们拿掉
My research team and I have shown
我和研究团队发现
that when we help parents do fun math activities with their kids —
当我们帮家长与孩子玩有趣数学游戏——
rather than, say, just doing bedtime stories or bedtime reading,
不在睡前读故事或者进行睡前阅读
they do bedtime math,
而是在睡前做数学题
which are fun story problems to do with your kids at night,
跟孩子一起解决有意思的数学问题
not only do children’s attitudes about math improve,
不但孩子对待数学的态度有了改善
but their math performance across the school year improves as well.
他们在整个学年的数学能力也得到了改善
Our environment matters.
我们的环境很重要
From the classroom to parents to media,
从教室到父母 到媒体
and it can really make a difference in terms
这些都会影响到我们
of whether we choke or thrive.
是发挥失常还是表现出色
Fast-forward from my high school soccer game
撇开我高中的足球比赛
to my freshman year in college.
说说我刚进入大学的事
I was in the chemistry sequence for science majors,
我学的是理科里的化学专业
and boy did I not belong.
那真的很不适合我
Even though I studied for my first midterm exam —
虽然我为第一次期中考试进行了复习——
I thought I was ready to go —
我觉得自己已经准备好了——
I bombed it.
结果我考砸了
I literally got the worst grade in a class of 400 students.
我是400个学生中成绩最差的
I was convinced I wasn’t going to be a science major,
我深信我当不了理科生
that maybe I was dropping out of college altogether.
可能连大学都毕不了业
But then I changed how I studied.
但之后 我改变学习方法
Instead of studying alone,
我不再一个人学习
I started studying with a group of friends
而是开始与一群朋友一起学习
who at the end of the study session would close their book
他们在学习后 合上书本
and compete for the right answer.
然后比赛答题
We learned to practice under stress.
我们学会了在压力之下练习
If you could’ve looked inside my brain
如果你能看见我的大脑内部
during that first midterm exam,
在我第一次的期中考试
you likely would’ve seen a neural pain response
你就会看见神经疼痛的反应
a lot like the math-anxious individuals I study.
就和我研究的有数学焦虑的人很像
It was probably there during the stressful study situation as well.
在学习压力大的时候 可能也有这种反应
But when I walked into the final,
但是在期末考试的时候
my mind was quiet,
我的大脑很平静
and I actually got one of the highest grades in the entire class.
而且我得到了全班的最高分
It wasn’t just about learning the material;
这不仅与学习资料有关
it was about learning how to overcome my limits when it mattered most.
更关键是重要时刻 学会打破自己的限制
What happens in our heads really matters,
我们大脑的活动很重要
and knowing this,
知道这些
we can learn how to prepare ourselves and others for success,
我们就学会如何帮助自己和他人获得成功
not just on the playing field but in the boardroom
不仅仅是在赛场上 在会议室中
and in the classroom as well.
在教室里也是如此
Thank you.
谢谢大家
(Applause)
(掌声)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

一起探讨如何面对压力,如何在压力之下保持良好的发挥。一起走向成功…

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Grace

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrB9JBEk1ds

相关推荐