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为何我们无法停止食用垃圾食品? – 译学馆
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为何我们无法停止食用垃圾食品?

Why we can't stop eating unhealthy foods

《TED医疗》
So when you get up in the morning,
大家早晨起床时
you probably feel pretty free to choose what you’re gonna do.
可能觉得自己可以自由决定要做的事
My guess is the first thing you do
我猜 大家做的第一件事
is reach for one of these–
就是拿起它
my cell phone.
手机
It gives me continuous access to an online
它让我随时可以上网下单点餐
all-you-can-eat buffet.
想吃什么都可以
I can enter a virtual gambling casino
我可以登录虚拟赌场
get hooked on a little app or a game,
迷上某个小程序或者某个游戏
a shop till I drop.
或某家网店 直到我下线
I got to be honest with you.
老实说
I am one, I cannot not look at this thing
我是这种人之一 当手机发出新消息提示音时
when it pings with a new text message.
我无法不去看它
And I am one of the 78% of Americans
有78%的美国人
who can’t get up out of bed in the morning
早上起床前一定要先看一下手机
without checking this thing first.
我也是这其中之一
Sometimes I don’t even notice I’m reaching for it.
有时我甚至没有意识到我正在找它
I just do it.
我只是这么做了
Now here’s a product.
我这儿有个产品
You probably don’t have in your pocket.
你们的口袋里可能没有
This is powdered alcohol.
这是粉状酒精
I’m not kidding, palcohol,
我没在开玩笑 粉状酒精
it’s going to be out on the market this year.
今年它将进入市场
So, I can just carry around this convenient little package,
看 我可以随身携带这种方便的小包装
and mix myself up a cocktail whenever wherever I want.
随时随地自制一杯鸡尾酒
Maybe I should add it to my morning coffee at work.
或许我应该把它加入早晨工作时喝的咖啡
It might jazz things up a bit.
这样或许能让人振奋点
So here’s my point.
我要说的是
At no time in human history
在人类历史上
has our species been so bombarded
我们从未像这样
by stuff designed to get us hooked.
被旨在让我们上瘾的事物轰炸过
Companies compete on the very basis
公司之间的竞争是基于
of creating evermore habit-forming products.
不断地创造令人上瘾的产品
And it’s no different with our food.
而我们的食品也不例外
Food corporations hire scientists
食品公司聘请科学家
to engineer the most irresistible habit-forming foods.
来研究最令人无法抗拒的易成瘾食品
Sugar is currently their go-to ingredient.
目前 糖是他们首选的成分
These guys have flipped the script on us.
这些家伙为我们制定好了策略
They are using the very brain imaging technologies that we use
他们使用的正是我们用来研究治疗成瘾的
to try to find cures for addiction.
大脑成像技术
Only they put people in the MRI machine
只不过他们让人进入核磁共振成像机
and feed them Doritos chips
并让他们吃Doritos薯片
to figure out ways to tweak the recipe
以此来想办法调整配方
to make it even more habit-forming than it already is.
让薯片比原本更加容易让人上瘾
So here’s my question to you.
那么我要问了
When you live in a world
当你生活在这样一个世界
that is surrounding you on a 24/7 basis
全天候围绕着你的食品
with food products scientifically engineered
都被科学地设计成
to be habit-forming.
使人上瘾的
Do you really have freedom of choice?
这样你真的可以自由选择吗?
Now most addictive substances are actually
大多数成瘾物质在自然状态下
quite safe in their natural form.
实际上是相当安全的
Heroin comes from poppy seeds,
海洛因来自罂粟籽
cocaine from the coca plant,
可卡因来自古柯树
alcohol from fruits and grains.
酒精来自水果和谷物
For centuries farmers high up in the Andes Mountains
几个世纪以来 安第斯山脉高处的农民们
have chewed coca leaves. It’s a tradition.
一直都嚼古柯叶 这是他们的传统
It’s a mild stimulant like drinking a cup of coffee.
就像喝咖啡一样 这有点温和的兴奋作用
It helps them work longer hours and cope with the high altitudes.
有助于他们工作更长时间和适应高海拔
Probably the worst thing that can happen to you
在嚼了一辈子的古柯叶之后
after a lifetime of chewing coca leaves,
最糟糕的事情或许是
is maybe you’ll get bad teeth.
你的牙坏了
Things do get really bad
然而真正糟糕的是
when we industrialize the coca production process,
当我们工业化古柯的生产过程
when we learned how to refine the coca plant down
当我们学会如何将古柯植物
into its most concentrated form:
提炼成最浓缩的形式:
a little rock of white powder.
一小块白色粉末时
That’s when the humble coca leaf
那时 不起眼的古柯叶
becomes the lethally addictive drug we know as crack.
就成了我们所知的致命毒品快克
Now what’s interesting is that up until the 20th century,
有趣的是直到20世纪
cocaine was actually an innocent domesticated white powder,
可卡因其实都被用作一种无害的家庭食用白粉
just like sugar is today.
就像如今的糖
People put it in everything.
人们做什么食物都会加它
You could go to your drugstore and buy it in a soothing tonic.
在药店可买到含可卡因的能舒缓病痛的奎宁水
People put it in cough syrup and gave it to their kids.
人们把它加入止咳糖浆并给孩子喝
Coca-Cola
可口可乐
is one of the most successful products in modern history.
是现代史上最成功的产品之一
It was formulated in the 1880s,
它产生于19世纪80年代
and the company’s founders were so proud of their special recipe
公司的创始人十分骄傲于他们独特的配方
that they vowed never to change it.
他们甚至发誓永远不会改配方
But one time in history,
但历史上曾有一次
the coca-cola corporation was forced to change its recipe.
可口可乐公司被迫改变配方
That was in 1903,
那是1903年
when the political current the tide was shifting away from cocaine
当政治动向转向远离可卡因
eventually to make it an illegal drug.
可卡因最终成为非法毒品
That’s when coca-cola took the cocaine out of the coke.
也就是那时 可口可乐将可卡因从可乐的配方中剔除
Of course they just replaced it with a different addictive substance
当然 只不过他们用另一种成瘾物质替代了它
namely caffeine.
那就是咖啡因
So here you have it.
你看
A concentrated dose of sugar
一份浓缩的糖
combined with a concentrated dose of caffeine,
和一份浓缩的咖啡因混合
double the pleasure,
那就是双倍的快乐
double the chances we’ll get hooked.
同时我们上瘾的可能也加倍
The fact is as long as food corporations aren’t breaking narcotics laws,
事实上只要食品公司没有违反毒品相关的法律
they can do pretty much whatever they want
为了让他们的产品更容易令人上瘾
to formulate their products to make them even more habit-forming.
他们几乎可以做他们想做的任何事
My work takes me into San Francisco’s Tenderloin district.
因工作需要我来到旧金山的污浊城区
Every big city has a place like this, right?
每个大城市都有这样的地方 对吧?
It’s a few square blocks of extreme poverty and urban blight.
这些地方是城市里极端贫困衰败的街区
There’s a liquor store on every corner
每个街角都有卖酒的商店
usually with a bunch of drug dealers hanging out in front.
门口通常会有一群毒贩在晃悠
We have a name for places like this.
我们给这样的地方起了个名
We call them alcohol and drug saturated environments.
我们称之为弥漫着酒精和毒品的环境
Now the Tenderloin has a program called Safe Passage.
现在污浊城区有一个叫做“安全通道”的项目
Volunteers go to the school bus
志愿者来到校车停靠站
and pick up children to safely walk them to their homes.
接孩子送他们安全回家
They have to travel circuitous routes through the city streets
为了避免遇上毒贩和卖酒的商铺
to avoid all the drug dealers and liquor stores.
他们不得不迂回曲折地穿过城市的街道
It’s like living in an obstacle course.
就像生活在障碍赛道中一样
When it comes to food to process food and sugar,
当谈及食品 加工食品和糖的时候
we’re all living in an obstacle course.
我们都生活在障碍赛道中
Our own tenderloin,
对我们来说 污浊城区
it’s on every corner in every store in every workplace.
存在于每个角落 每个商店 每个工作场所
74% of the foods in your grocery store
杂货店里74%的食物
have sugar added to them stuff that doesn’t even taste sweet.
里面都加了糖 即使有些甚至尝起来不甜
So, why do I care about this so much?
那么 为什么我如此在乎这个?
It’s actually not the rising rates of obesity worldwide
事实上 让我夜不能寐的并不是
that keeps me up at night.
世界范围内不断上升的肥胖率
It’s two other very disturbing trends.
而是另外两个令人非常不安的趋势
And the first is the appearance of adult diseases in children.
首先是成人疾病出现在儿童身上
Type-2 diabetes is linked to heavy sugar consumption
2型糖尿病与高糖摄入有关
in especially sugary drinks.
尤其是含糖饮料
It’s called adult onset diabetes.
它被称作成人发病型糖尿病
Because in my parents generation,
因为在我父母那一代
we only saw it in adults.
患这种病的只有成年人
Today one out of four American teenagers
而现在 美国青少年每4人中就有1人
is pre-diabetic or diabetic.
是糖尿病前期或患有糖尿病
Next is the appearance of whole new diseases
其次是不明原因的
that seem to come out of nowhere.
全新疾病的出现
The diagnosis non-alcoholic fatty liver disease didn’t even exist until 1980.
直到1980年才出现非酒精性脂肪肝的诊断
Again, a condition linked to heavy sugar consumption diet.
这又是一种与高糖饮食有关的疾病
By 2020 in five years,
到2020年的5年内
it’s going to be the leading cause of liver transplantation.
它将成为肝脏移植的主要原因
This is the global warming of human health.
这是人类健康意义上的“全球变暖”
These trends are warning signs like melting icebergs and rising sea levels.
这些趋势就像冰山融化和海平面上升 是警告信号
They’re telling us that there’s something very wrong with our food environment.
它们在警示我们 我们的食品环境出了大问题
Our food supply is making some of us very sick.
我们的食品供应让我们中的一些人病得很重
Here’s the good news.
好消息是
There is some good news.
有一些好消息
The solutions to this situation are easily within our reach.
对我们来说 解决这种情况的办法很简单
Now everybody always says educate the public in healthy choices,
每个人都说教育公众选择健康的食物
but we know that doesn’t work,
但我们知道这没有用
if it worked then why would 48% of Americans
如果有用 那为什么48%的美国人
still be drinking a sugary drink or more a day?
还是每天喝一杯甚至更多的含糖饮料?
The fact is I could say until I’m blue in the face.
事实上我可以一直说到唇干口燥 然而没用
“Don’t drink that stuff, it’s unhealthy.”
“别喝那东西 不健康”
You already know that.
我们都知道这些
But when you live in a sugar saturated environment,
但当你生活在一个充满糖的环境里
more often than not
更多的时候
you’ll probably just reach for what’s been put in front of you.
你可能只会去拿已经摆在你面前的东西
And if it’s a concentrated source of pleasure,
如果它是浓缩了的的快乐源泉
a product carefully engineered with white powders to get you hooked.
用白色粉末精心设计的让你上瘾的产品
That puts a huge burden on you all the time to say no,
要做到一直说不 你会有巨大的压力
and many of us don’t.
我们大多数人做不到
So what do we do about this problem?
那么我们该怎么解决这个问题呢?
How do we fix it?
我们该怎么解决?
The solutions are actually remarkably simple
解决方案其实非常简单
and here’s how it works
来看看它是如何起作用的
Food companies have gotten very good at
食品公司已经非常擅长
seducing us towards their products
引诱我们去购买他们的产品
in ways that we barely even notice.
而我们几乎意识不到被引诱了
All of the most effective public health strategies just do the opposite.
所有最有效的公共卫生策略恰恰相反
They gently nudge us away from the unhealthy stuff.
他们温柔地提醒我们远离不健康的东西
It’s simple, we just flip the script back.
很简单 我们只要反着食品公司的策略来
So for example, soda companies,
比如汽水公司
they intentionally keep their prices down so that we’ll buy more.
他们故意保持低价 这样我们就会买得更多
If we put a tax on this soda
如果我们对这种汽水征税
that raises the price a little and gently nudges us away.
这会稍微提高价格 并温和地让我们远离汽水
If food corporations are barraging our children
如果食品公司用嘎嘣脆船长和可可泡芙的广告
with advertisements for Captain Crunch and Cocoa Puffs,
对我们的孩子进行轰炸
we can just take those ads off the air.
我们可以把那些广告撤下来
If they pay grocery stores to put candy
如果他们给钱让杂货店
at eye level for our little children,
把糖果摆放在小孩子的视线范围里
we can put it a little higher on the shelf.
我们可以把它放在货架上更高的地方
And if they pay famous sports figures to promote Gatorade,
如果他们付钱给著名的体育明星来推广佳得乐
we can pay them to say “I drink water.”
我们可以付钱让他们说“我喝水”
Small changes can add up to big shifts in the environment.
在这种环境里小的变化可以累积成大的改变
We know this from decades of research on addictive substances.
这是我们从几十年来对成瘾物质的研究了解到的
I understand we really would all like to believe that we’re in charge,
我知道我们都相信自己有自主能力
that we have complete freedom over what we eat.
相信自己对吃什么有完全的自由
But how free can we be?
但我们能有多自由?
Living in a saturated environment,
生活在这样一个饱和的环境里
one that continuously surrounds us with food products carefully engineered
源源不断地被精心设计的食品包围着
to get us hooked and keep us coming back for more.
那些食品让我们上瘾 让我们不断回购
Those kids in the Tenderloin,
污浊城区的那些孩子
they apparently live in what’s called a food desert.
很显然他们生活在所谓的食物沙漠
They don’t even have access to a grocery store, really.
他们甚至接触不到食品杂货店 真的
What’s a grocery store when it’s stuffed with junk food
当充满垃圾食品 其中74%添加了糖
74% of it loaded with added sugar?
这样的食品杂货店算什么?
All the health experts will tell you,
所有的健康专家都会告诉你
shop around the perimeter of this grocery store
在食品杂货店内四周买东西
that way you can steer your way around all the junk that’s in the middle.
这样你就可以绕过中间的垃圾食品
But how different is that
这种做法和
from a strategy that steers children around drug dealers in the Tenderloin.
在污浊城区带领孩子们绕过毒贩有何区别
We can do so much better than this.
相比之下 我们可以做得更好
We don’t have to live in an environment that is ready to get us fat,
我们不必生活在一个随时会让我们变胖的环境中
and then blames us for the health consequences in the medical bills.
然后自己承担因健康问题产生的医疗费用
We don’t have to sit by
我们不必袖手旁观
and watch our children suffer from diseases of adulthood.
看着我们的孩子患上成人疾病
We can rerigged this environment to make it safe.
我们可以重新调整环境使之安全
It’s not about personal choice anymore.
这不再只关乎个人的选择了
It’s about our public choice.
而是关乎我们的公共选择
Thank you.
谢谢大家
[applause]
[掌声]

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译制信息
视频概述

食品公司基于竞争不断生产令人上瘾的食品,因为食品公司的销售策略,我们生活在一个满是诱惑的环境中。为公共健康着想,我们应做出一些举措让生活环境更加健康安全。

听录译者

HOUKI

翻译译者

Shirley

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTNlHyjip94

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