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万能溶剂—水

Why Water Dissolves (Almost) Everything

Chemicals like turpentine, ethanol, and sulfuric acid
松节油 乙醇 硫酸等化学物质
are great at dissolving stuff.
具有很强的溶解能力
they can break down paint, oil,
它们可以分解颜料 石油
metal, skin, bones, and more.
金属 皮肤 骨骼等物体
But there’s another liquid out there
但还有一种液体
that can dissolve more substances
能够溶解掉
than perhaps anything else on the earth:
地球上几乎所有其他物质
water,
它就是水
which is sometimes called “the universal solvent”.
有时人们称它“万能溶剂”
Yet this super-dissolver is everywhere;
这种超级溶剂随处可见
it falls from the sky and fills our pipes,
从天而降的是它 灌满水管的是它
it’s what we bathe in, wash our hands with,
我们用水洗澡 洗手
and pour down our delicate throats.
甚至把水倒进我们脆弱的喉咙里
If water is such a powerful solvent,
如果水有这么强的溶解力
why doesn’t it dissolve everything away?
它为什么没有把一切都溶解掉?
Welcome to MinuteEarth.
欢迎收看分钟地球
It’s true that water is really good at dissolving lots of stuff.
的确 很多物质都易溶于水
For a liquid to dissolve something,
液体溶解物质
it has to pull apart the molecules that make up that substance,
需要将构成物质的分子拆分开来
and keep them apart.
并使其保持分离
Water is pretty much built for that job,
水能很好地胜任这个工作
its molecules have strong positive and negative charges,
它的分子有很强的正负电荷
so they can pull apart and get between other molecules,
因此它们可以分离并进入其他分子
or pieces of molecules with charged parts.
或带电分子的碎片之间
And lots of different molecules out there happen to have charged parts,
并且有许多不同分子碰巧是带电分子
which means that lots of different substances on our planet dissolve
这意味着我们地球上各种物质
at least to some extent in water.
在水中至少都会有某种程度的溶解
That’s why water is our go-to for cleaning stuff.
这就是为什么水是我们清洗东西的首选
It can dissolve sticky orange juice right off your counter
水仅仅是将黏黏的橙汁从柜台上溶解掉
or blood off your clothes.
或将血迹从衣服上溶解掉
But water doesn’t dissolve the counter,
但是 却没有溶解掉柜台
or the clothes, or our windows, or streets.
也没有溶解掉衣服 窗户以及街道
which at first glance seems like a pretty lucky coincidence.
这乍一看像是个颇为幸运的巧合
I mean, it would be not great
我的意思是
if cleaning something would make it disintegrate,
如果什么东西洗一洗就分解了
or if rain could wipe out an entire city.
或者 雨水能摧毁整座城市的话 就太糟了
But the super dissolving abilities of water
但是水超强的溶解能力
are exactly why our world is built the way it is,
正是世界表现为现在的样子
or really, the way it isn’t.
而不是其他样子的原因
We make our countertops with quartz,
我们用石英制作厨房台面
our clothes with cotton, our windows with glass,
用棉花做衣服 用玻璃造窗户
and our streets with asphalt
用沥青铺马路
because water can’t dissolve these materials.
是因为水不能分解这些材料
They’re made mostly of molecules with no charged parts.
它们主要由不带电粒子组成
It would be silly to build, say, windows with something
用糖之类在水中能溶解的材料
that can dissolve in water, like sugar…
制造比如说窗户 是个很蠢的行为
unless you’re going to eat them.
除非你想把窗户吃掉
And lots of the substances that water DOES dissolve,
很多可溶于水的物质
like washable markers,
比如可水洗记号笔
are things we engineered so that they can be washd away.
是我们特意设计的可水洗产品
We’ve also engineered versions that aren’t dissolvable in water
不想让产品被洗掉的时候
for when we don’t want them to be washed away.
我们就设计不溶于水的版本
By making sure water dissolves what we want it to
通过保证水只溶解我们要溶解的东西
and only what we want it to.
而不溶解其他东西
We’ve been able to adapt a life to a world
人类的生活已经适应了
in which water dissolves so much stuff.
水能溶解如此多物质的世界
We humans also literally adapted to a world
我们人类自身真正适应了
in which water dissolves so much stuff.
这个水能溶解如此多物质的世界
The outer layer of our skin is built in a way that makes it uncharged
我们皮肤的表皮层是由不带电的分子构成
and therefore undissolvable.
因此不会被水溶解
And the membrane surrounding each of the cells inside us
我们体内每个细胞的细胞膜
has a similar undissolvable layer.
都有类似的不可溶解的结构
The only reason we humans exist at all on this watery planet
我们人类能够存在于这颗充满水的星球
or that trees, fish, bacteria, or anything else exists
或是树木 鱼类 细菌等存在的唯一原因
is that we evolved barriers that could keep water
是我们进化出了可以阻隔水的屏障
from dissolving us into goo.
以防止我们被水溶解成粘液
Any life forms that didn’t were simply dead in the water.
不具备这一点的生物就直接丧命于水中了
Realizing our entire planet is built around
意识到整个地球都是围绕着
water’s awesome dissolving ability
水的强溶解力建立的
has changed how I see the world
改变了我看待世界的方式
which is one of our goals at MinuteEarth.
这也是分钟地球的目标之一
It’s also why we’re partnering with MEL Science,
以及我们与MEL Science合作的原因
a kids’ subscription kit that truly brings science to life.
这是儿童会员礼包 它能真正使科学走进生活
MEL’s hands-on activities
MEL的动手活动
transform the invisible science happening all around us
将我们身边无形的科学
into something accessible,
变得触手可及
like this awesome tin hedgehog,
就像这个有趣的锡刺猬
which got my kids super excited
让我的孩子对不同化合物
about the crystal structures of different compounds.
的晶体结构产生了浓厚的兴趣
Plus, along with a monthly subscription,
此外 一月一次的更新
you’ll get access to live classes with professional teachers,
将使你有机会参与专业老师的授课现场
and an augmented reality app
还有一个增强现实应用
to dive deeper into the scientific concepts.
帮助你更深刻地理解科学概念
We’ve been talking with MEL
我们与MEL讨论过
about some really exciting partnership ideas,
一些令人激动的合作想法
but first we need to see if our viewers are as excited about
但是首先 我们需要了解观众是否
what MEL does as we are.
对MEL和我们同样感兴趣
So go check melscience.com.
那就去MEL的网站看看吧
And use code MINUTE50 to get 50% off your first box.
使用优惠码MINUTE50 即可享受首单五折
That’s melscience.com,
网址是melscience.com
promo code: MINUTE50
优惠码:MINUTE50
Thanks, MEL.
感谢MEL的支持

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视频概述

地球的近70%都是水,水被称为“万能溶剂”。那么,水是怎样溶解物质的?为什么有些物质不会被水溶解?人类在生产生活中又 是如何利用水的呢?……请跟分钟地球一起,探索水的奥妙吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Vinki

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIs7PAW0mlM

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