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为什么这架飞机无懈可击:SR-71侦察机

Why Was This Plane Invulnerable: The SR-71 Blackbird Story

感谢 Squarespace 资助我完成这个视频
Thanks to Squarespace for making this video possible
还帮助我开了一家新的Mustard服装店
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更多内容请关注视频结尾处
More on that after this video.
冷战中期
In the midst of the Cold War,
两架米格25在苏联边境线上相竞拦截一架敌机
two Mig-25s race to intercept a threatalong the Soviet border.
米格25是当时最快的拦截机
They’re the fastest interceptors ever built,
如果全速前进
and if they really push their engines,
速度可高达3.2马赫
they can reach an incredible Mach 3.2.
但这还远远不够
But it’s not enough.
因为另一架飞机在速度 高度方面远超米格25
Because what they’re chasing can outrun and out-climb any threat.
是一架无懈可击的飞机
A plane engineered to be invulnerable.
美国SR-71“黑鸟”超音速侦察机
THE SR-71 BLACKBIRD
冷战使得美国和苏联就国际影响力及掌控范围
The Cold War locked the United States and Soviet Union into a tense struggle
展开激烈斗争
for global influence and control.
双方在军事技术方面投入甚多
Both sides poured enormous resources into military technologies.
而想要占据优势就意味着要知道对手的下一步动作
But getting an upper hand means knowing your opponent’s next move.
在20世纪50年代 美国无法深入了解苏联的军备情况
And in the 1950s, little was known about facilities deep within the Soviet Union.
苏联拥有覆盖面广的雷达站网络 地对空导弹发射场
An extensive network of radar stations, surface-to-air missile sites,
以及拦截机空军基地 用来阻止美方侵涉领空
and interceptor air bases kept theAmericans away.
直到1956年 U-2侦察机开始在苏联上空盘旋
Until 1956, when U-2 spy planes began flying over the Soviet Union.
U-2飞得不快也没什么隐蔽性 但它有一个巨大的优势
Neither fast nor stealthy, the U-2s had one critical advantage.
它们的飞行高度可达七万英尺 超过了苏联防空系统的检测范围
At 70,000 feet, they could fly above Soviet air defenses. U.S.
美国总统艾森豪威尔甚至还很自信地说
President Eisenhower was evenassured,
苏联的雷达才检测不到飞得这么高的U-2呢
Soviet radars couldn’t detect the U-2 at such high altitudes.
但事实证明 他错了
But it turns out, the Americans were wrong.
从U-2出现的第一天起 苏联就捕捉到了它的踪迹
The Soviets had tracked the U-2 since day one,
至于击落U-2
and it was only a matter of time
不过是时间的问题
before they’d be able to shoot one down.
如果只是单纯地飞得高 那还不够
Simply flying high wasn’t enough.
甚至在U-2履行它的监测任务之前
Even before the U-2 began its surveillance missions,
美国人已经考虑要更新换代
there were already plans underway to replace it.
因为真正战胜苏联空军需要一架速度极快
Because true impunity over Soviet airspace would need a combination
拥有极强爬升能力和隐身能力的飞机
of incredible speed, altitude, and stealth.
这也使得美国人去研究
And this led the Americans to explore
一些十分激进的侦察机理念
some pretty radical spy plane concepts,
比如搭载在超音速B-58机身腹部的
like a ramjet powered aircraft that
冲压喷气式战机
would be deployed from the bottom of a supersonic B-58.
但是在1959年 中央情报局选择洛克希德来研发下一代侦察机
But in 1959, the CIA chose Lockheed to develop the next generation of spy plane.
同时 U-2继续在苏联上空盘旋
Meanwhile, the U-2 continued to fly overthe Soviet Union.
但这并没有持续多久
But not for very long,
因为在1960年春天
because in the spring of 1960,
苏联的一个地对空导弹最终成功将U-2击落
a Soviet surface-to-air missile finally managed to bring one down.
苏联炫耀其俘获的飞行员和飞机残骸
The captured pilot andwreckage were paraded around the Soviet Union
并把它们视为西方侵略的证据
used as proof of Westernaggression.
形势愈发严峻
As tensions rose,
美国迫切地需要一架U-2的替代品
now more than ever the US needed a replacement for the U-2.
洛克希德研发出来的是一架不同于以往的飞机
And what Lockheed developed, would be unlike any aircraft ever built.
即使是在它首飞的60年后
A plane that nearly 60 years after its first flight,
仍是最快的喷气式飞机
remains the fastest air-breathing jet to ever fly.
洛克希德高度保密侦察机的代号为A-12
Lockheed’s highly-classified spy plane would be known as the A-12.
A-12最初被中央情报局用来侦查情报
Originally used by the CIA for reconnaissance,
但后来它也发展成为
the A-12 was also developed into an interceptor prototype,
装配有空对空导弹拦截机的原型
armed with air-to-air missiles,
还有另外一种型号 它可以发射无人驾驶侦察机
along with a variant that could launch an unmanned reconnaissance drone.
但是 正是SR-71黑鸟飞机
But it was the SR-71 Blackbird,
一种为空军而研发的机型 会继续服役数十年
a variant developed for the Air Force that would go on to serve for decades,
而早期的机型会迅速淘汰
while earlier versionswere quickly retired.
黑鸟飞机在空中能以3.2马赫的速度巡航
The Blackbird could cruise at Mach 3.2 right near the edge of space,
而且可以一直保持几个小时
and do it for hours on end.
为了达到这个目标
To achieve this,
洛克希德的工程师不得不从头开始 对所有的一切进行创新
Lockheed’s engineers had to innovate pretty much everything from scratch.
为了维持这样快的速度 SR-71和它的前身
To sustain such incrediblespeeds the SR-71 and its predecessors
都装上了涡轮冲压组合式喷气发动机
were powered by engines often described as turboramjets.
在2马赫速度下 它们像以前燃烧后的飞机引擎一样运作
Below Mach 2 they functioned like conventional after-burning jet engines.
但超过这个速度后 它们更像冲压式喷气发动机那样运作
But above that, they behaved more like ramjets,
改良后的入口锥会绕过引擎
as an inlet cone adjusted to bypass air around
然后直接进入后燃室
the engine and directly into theafterburner.
以3.2马赫速度飞行的SR-71
At mach 3.2 the SR-71’s
表面温度能超过500华氏度
exterior would heat up to beyond 500 degrees Fahrenheit,
足以软化飞机铝外表
easily hot enough to soften aircraft aluminum.
洛克希德在制作中使用了92%的钛合金
Lockheed engineers used titanium for 92 percent of the aircraft,
而在20世纪60年代 他们需要发明全新的制造技术
and in the 1960s this required inventing entirely new fabrication technologies.
SR-71非同寻常的外形不只是为了吸引UFO爱好者
It’s unusual shape did more than just spook UFO enthusiasts,
它还降低了雷达识别率
it helped reduce its radar signature
由于SR-71有着特殊的黑色涂漆
as did its special black paint,
它得到了黑鸟的称号
which earned the SR-71 its Blackbirdname.
A-12和SR-71首次部署在朝鲜和越南
The A-12 and SR-71 were first deployed over North Korea and Vietnam,
它们逃脱了800多枚地对空导弹的攻击
where they were unsuccessfully targeted by over 800 surface-to-air missiles.
但是侦察机没有飞进苏联领空
But the spy plane never flew into Soviet airspace.
至少官方没有正式宣称过
At least not officially,
因为又一架飞机在苏联坠毁将会使美国损失惨重
because another shoot-down over the Soviet Union would be catastrophic.
所以 SR-71沿着苏联国境线飞行
So instead, the SR-71 flew along its borders,
用它强大的侧视雷达和照相机
using its powerful side-looking radar and cameras
去窥探几百英里的苏联领土
to peer hundreds of miles into Soviet territory.
这个举动使苏联不安
And that frustrated the Soviets.
1976年 维克多·别连科叛投西方
In 1976, Viktor Belenko defected to the west,
驾驶他的米格25逃离苏联
by escaping the Soviet Union in his Mig-25.
他透露苏联拦截黑鸟失败
He described the frustration of trying to intercept Blackbirds.
米格的速度能达到3马赫
The MiG’s were Mach 3 capable,
但一次只能维持几分钟
but only for a few minutes at a time.
不像黑鸟能维持几小时
Not for hours like the Blackbird.
而且它们也不能攀升到SR-71的高度
Nor could they climb to reach the SR-71’s incredible altitude.
甚至它们巨大的R40导弹
Even their enormous R40 missiles lacked the
也缺乏能正面迎击SR-71的制导
guidance needed to strike the SR-71 head-on.
多年来 黑鸟几乎无懈可击
For years, the Blackbirds were practically invulnerable.
它们能摆脱任何威胁
They could out fly and out-climb any threat.
但是到了20世纪80年代 米格31开始在空中盘旋
But by the 1980s, Mig-31s were roaming the skies,
装备有复杂的雷达和R33远程导弹
equipped with sophisticated radar and long-range R33 missiles.
它们造成了真正的威胁
They poseda legitimate threat, as did a new
就像新一代的苏联地对空导弹一样 但对黑鸟最大的威胁
generation of Soviet surface-to-airmissiles. But the greatest threat to the
不是敌方的导弹或飞机
Blackbird wasn’t an enemy missile or jet.
而是它自己
It was itself.
没有一架黑鸟在执行任务时失败
No Blackbird was ever lost
但五十架黑鸟中
on a mission, but more than a third
超过三分之一在事故中受到损伤
of the 50 built were destroyed in accidents.
甚至还有一架在飞行中真的散架了
One literally disintegrated around itspilots. They were also enormously
维护黑鸟的开销也很大
expensive to operate.
一架黑鸟一年的维护费就要花去大约3亿美元
Each one siphoningabout 300 million dollars a year out of
这超出了美国的国防预算
America’s defense budget.
黑鸟还需要一队特殊的空中加油机
A fleet ofspecial aerial refuelers and a small army
和一小队后勤和维修人员
of support and maintenance staff were
以保证飞机能随时待命
needed just to keep these planes mission ready.
侦查卫星 无人机有了很大的进步
And advances in spy satellites aerial drones and the SR-71 s inability
而SR-71却无法实时传输监测数据
to deliver surveillance data in real time,
这使得飞机的实用性有所降低
diminished some of the plane’s utility.
另外
Add to that,
政治斗争和为国防预算而起的内讧
politics and infighting for defense budgets and by
导致到了20世纪80年代末 SR-71剩下的日子屈指可数
the late 1980s, the SR-71’s days were numbered.
它们1998年正式退役 其中两架送到NASA进行测试
They were officially retired in 1998, with two sent to NASA for testing.
而A-12和SR-71的技术距今已有五十多个年头了
The technology behind the A-12 and SR-71 is now well over fifty years old.
这些不可思议的飞机仍然在对我们诉说
Yet somehow these incredible planesstill speak to us.
它们诉说的不只是过去
Not about the past, but
还有未来 让我们感觉到
the future. Leaving us with a sense
这是在航天史上从未发生过的奇迹
of wonder unlike any other in aviation history.
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译制信息
视频概述

SR-71黑鸟飞机一往无前所向披靡,是美国制胜苏联的关键。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

醉里挑灯看剑

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th-RoJBP0Vs

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