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为什么优步在德国行不通 – 译学馆
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为什么优步在德国行不通

Why Uber Failed in Germany

2012年 优步推出了服务UberX项目
After Uber introduced its service UberX in2012
即允许个人驾驶私家车载客
which allows private drivers to drive for Uber with their private cars,
几年间 公司就飞快的成长起来了
the growth of the company skyrocketed within a few years.
当今 优步市值超过600亿美元 在全球60个国家400多个城市都有业务
Today,Uber is worth more than $ 60 billion and operates in 60 countries and over 400 cities worldwide
然而 有个市场是优步多少没有成功占领的 那就是德国
One market, however, that Uber for years more or less unsuccessfully tried to conquer is Germany.
但为什么优步在这里举步维艰呢?
But why exactly did the company have such a hard time here?
2013年年底 UberX首先被引进到德国的5个主要城市 那时它被称作UberPOP
In Germany UberX was first introduced in 5 major cities in late 2013 under the name UberPOP.
这些城市是法兰克福 柏林 慕尼黑 汉堡和德塞尔多夫
These cities were Frankfurt, Berlin, Munich,Hamburg and Düsseldorf.
按当时的惯例 优步几乎没考虑当地法律或协定
As common practise at this time, Uber started their service here too
就开展了他们的服务
with little regard for local laws or protocols.
相反 他们的策略是:先扩张-再提问
Instead their strategy was: expand first – ask questions later.
这就是你查询 “另一个法律问题” 时
There is a reason why when you google ” another legal problem”,
最先出现的词条是关于优步的原因
the first article that comes up is an article about Uber
尽管这种方法起初真的为他们打开了德国市场 但很快事与愿违
Although this approach certainly opened up the German market for them initially ,it quickly backfired.
真的很德国 载客运输都要受到法律法规的严格管制
Like so much in Germany, passanger transportation is stricly regulated by a net of laws and regulations.
如 “personenbeförderungsgesetz”或乘客运送
The Personenbeförderungsgesetz or Passenger Transportation Act for instance,
需要颁发特别许可证给司机才能运营
mandates a special license for drivers transporting people for payment.
这个许可证大约要花100-200欧元
This License roughly costs 100-200€
还需要各种不同的认证 以及体检
and requires a variety of different certifications and medical exams.
这包括一张有效的驾驶证 一张身份证
This includes a valid drivers license, an ID card,
压力测试 反应测试
a stress test, a reaction Test
认知测试和视力测试
a cognition test and an eyesight test
也包括犯罪记录证明 当地知识证书
as well as criminal record certificate, a local knowledge certificate
以及驾驶员适合性登记表的声明
and a statement of the driver suitability register
此外 提供出租车服务的公司
Furthermore,companies that provide taxi servies
需要出租车执照或至少要有正规的车辆牌照
require a taxi license or at least a vehicle license,
两者分别都需要很多文书工作
which both, in turn, require a lot of paperwork.
另一个法律问题涉及缺少正规保险的问题
Another legal problem involved the lack of correct insurance.
鉴于这是多数国家的惯例 德国的每个司机都必须投保
As it is the norm in many countries, every driver in Germany has to be insured.
然而私人保险通常不会包括商业车辆
Private insurances however typcially don’t cover commercially driven vehicles
这意味着载客时 许多优步司机是未上保的 这是不合法的
which meant many Uber drivers were essentially driving uninsured when they were working which is illegal.
由于以上种种
Because of all that,
在服务实行仅仅几个月后
only months after the implementation of the service
各城市的法院及当地政府开始用法律来抵制优步公司
courts and authorities of the respective cities started to take legal actions against the company.
大约1年半后 在2015年的春天 Uberpop在全国范围内被完全禁止
Roughly 1,5 years later, in Spring 2015, UberPop was banned altogether nationwide.
在审判过程中 优步认为他们的服务是合法的
During the trail Uber argued that their service is legal
因为他们没有任何车辆
because they dont own any cars andonly acts as a middleman
只是充当乘客和司机之间的中间人
between passengers and drivers.
出租车服务规则不适用于他们
The rules for taxiservices should therefore not apply to them.
但该申辩不被法院接受
But this defense wasnt recognized by the court
因为优步公司仍直接管理着付款交单的合同运输
as the company still directly managed the contractual transportation against payment
况且这也不是一种共享汽车服务
and wasn’t a car sharing service.
在第二次开庭时
The sentence was subsequently confirmed in second instance
虽然有怨言 但欧洲法院还是维持了原判
and after a complaint also by the european court of justice.
繁华过后 优步要再次撤回在德国的服务
After the Ruling,Uber had to withdraw the service in Germany again
这意味着一段时间内 他们剩下的唯一服务就是Ubertaxi
which meant that for a while the only remaining service they provided was Uber Taxi
可以让你通过应用程序叫出租车
which allows you to call a regular taxi via app.
自那以后 他们成功引进了两个新的叫作Uberx
Since then they have however successfully introduced two new legal versions called UberX
(不要与来自美国的Uberx混淆)和Ubergreen服务项目
(not to be confused with the UberX from America) and UberGreen
其本质上都是提供驾乘服务的
which are essentially livery services that provide rides
那不是私人司机驾驶的
that provide rides that arent run by private drivers
而是由具备必要文书的专业司机公司(人员)驾驶的
but instead by professional chauffeur companies with the necessary paperwork.
如今 他们又在3个城市开展了这些服务
Today they are operating these services in 3 cities again.
但每个城市的车队大约只有100到150辆
But with a fleet of only around 100-150 cars per city
市场份额当然很小
the marketshare is of course comparably small.
优步也计划革新德国的客运业务
Ubers plan to revolutionize passenger transportation in Germany too
因为到目前为止 在德国的业务还是失败的
has therefore thus far mostly failed.
优步在德国巩固自己地位仍面临困难的根本原因
One final reason why Uber might continue to have trouble establishing themselves in Germany
是这里的出租车服务远不像其他国家那样被轻视
is that taxi services here are far less despised as in other countries.
价格没有明显降低时
While the prices are not noteably lower
德国的出租车大部分还是由较新的 奔驰车型组成的
taxis in germany are still most comprised of newer mercedes models.
尽管这个数字在过去20年里有所下降
Although the number has dropped over the past 2 decades
但仍有超过50%的出租车是梅赛德斯的
over 50 % of taxis are still mercedes
总的来说 这会使出租车出行更加舒适
which, in general, makes taxi rides a pretty confortable thing.

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视频概述

介绍了优步在德国行不通的原因和下一步对策

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zou

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KXsMiOKXAA

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