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为什么这个被污染的亚洲城市有最长的平均寿命 – 译学馆
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为什么这个被污染的亚洲城市有最长的平均寿命

Why This Polluted Asian City has the Longest Life Expectancy

这条视频出自“技能分享”频道
This video is made possible by Skillshare.
这里有20000多种课程来教你新的生活技能
Home to over 20,000 classes to teach you a new life skill.
最先点入下方链接报名的500人
The first 500 people to sign up
会享受头2个月的免费课程
with the link below will get their first 2 months for free.
50.1年
50.1 years.
根据世界卫生组织的调查
According to the World Health Organization,
这是塞拉利昂
this is the average life expectancy
国民的人均寿命
in the country of Sierra Leone.
截至目前 它是全世界人均寿命最低的国家之一
As of now, one of the lowest in the world.
而与之相对的
At the other end of the spectrum,
世界上也有意大利 冰岛 新加坡和瑞士这类的国家
we have countries like Italy, Iceland, Singapore & Switzerland
它们的国民人均寿命都达到了80岁
all with an average life expectancy well into their 80’s.
然而 以人均寿命83.7年击败所有国家
Now beating all those countries however, is of course Japan
登顶榜首的是日本
topping the list at 83.7 years.
(需要注意的是联合国的数据有所不同)不管怎样
(Note that the UN data is a little different). Regardless,
这是一个有着最长人均寿命的国家
this is the country with the longest average life expectancy. But,
但是这条视频不是关于日本的
this video is not about Japan,
因为有一个城市有着更长的人均寿命
because there is a city with an even longer life expectancy.
这就是香港 一座拥有七百四十万人口
This is Hong Kong,a city with over 7.4 million people
占地近千平方千米(400平方英里)的城市
living on about a thousand square kilometres of land(or 400 square miles).
世界上人口最密集
One of the most densely populated places on the planet –
昼夜不息 生活节奏极快的城市之一
a fast paced city that never sleeps.
香港是一座反差极大的城市 在这里
It’s a city of contradictions with towering buildings
高楼紧挨着绿茵山林
next to lush green mountains,
麦当劳与肯德基的旁边即是路边摊
street food stalls alongside McDonald’s & KFC’s,
时尚门店的对面是售卖便宜伪造品的市场
markets selling cheap counterfeits in front of designer stores
但最令人吃惊的也许就是
but the most surprising perhaps is the extremely long life expectancy
在这座世界上污染最严重的城市里
of the people living in what is one
人们有着极长的平均寿命
of the most polluted cities in the world.
香港的人均寿命为83.4年
Hong Kong has an average life expectancy of 84.3 years.
极其讽刺的是 香港 粤语发音为“Heung Gong”
Ironically enough, Hong Kong or ‘Heung Gong’,as it’s pronounced in Cantonese
字面上的翻译 为“芳香的港口”
literally translates to ‘Fragrant Harbour’.
这一称呼 更适合于以前
This title may have been more fitting back
香木产品与熏香
in the day when fragrant wood products and incense
都在这里进行交易的时候
were traded in the region
但在今天 这份烟雾弥漫的 “荣誉”
but today, in all its smoggy glory,
也许又是香港这座反差城市的另外一个反差
it’s perhaps just another addition to the city of contradictions.
这里有二十多万辆红色出租车在路上穿梭交织
With the 200,000 plus red taxis trawling the roads,
整齐统一的高楼大厦阻挡着空气循环
uniform high-rises impacting air circulation,
轿车 卡车和巴士的引擎在空转
idling engines of cars, trucks, buses;
货船排放着废弃物 巨大的燃煤发电站
cargo-ship emissions,giant coal-fired power stations,
和邻近中国大陆的几千座工厂
and the thousands of factories in neighbouring Mainland China
也在排放出废气
puffing out fumes,
污染问题俨然已是香港的一大严峻考验
pollution is considered a serious problem in Hong Kong.
特别指明一点 香港拥有着世界上
Note the city has among the highest density
最高密度的交通工具群
of vehicles in the world
并且一年中百分之三十的日子里
and visibility there is also less than eight kilometers
香港的能见度要低于8千米
for 30 % of the year.
伦敦的1952年大雾事件
When London was hit by The Great Smog of 1952,
是史上最严重的大气污染事件之一
one of the worst air pollution events in history,
据估计 当时大约有一万两千人死于高浓度雾霾
an estimated 12,000 people died due to the high concentrations.
所以香港恶劣的空气质量
So it’s no surprise that in Hong Kong,
导致每年约有9万人入院 2800人早逝
bad air quality is responsible for about 90,000 hospital admissions
也就并不奇怪了
and 2800 premature deaths every year.
研究表明
A study found that air pollution
香港的空气污染增加了
in Hong Kong increased the risk of dying from
死于任一癌症22%的几率
any type of cancer by 22%. So,
所以 香港到底发生了什么呢?
what’s going on here?
为什么这个没那么芳香的“芳香港口”
How can this not-so-fragrant,”Fragrant Harbour” harbour a population
拥有着世界上最长的人均寿命?
with the longest average life expectancy in the world?
日本一直是长寿的卫冕冠军国家
Japan had traditionally been the one to beat,
但在这过去的几十年里
but over the last few decades,
香港已经迈出了一大步
Hong Kong had caught up in a huge way,
并且在五年前超过日本 成为人均寿命最长的城市
overtaking Japan about five years ago. Ok,
我们来看一看
if we take a look
香港所处的位置
at where Hong Kong is positioned,
它处于一个
it’s in a region that’s
气温不至于过热或过冷的地区
not too hot and not too cold.
这里的亚热带气候使人们的生活更加简易与舒适
It’s a subtropical climate which makes lifeeasier and more comfortable.
举个例子
There aren’t,
香港没有像美国或英国一样
for example, harsh winter months that take a toll on the elderly
有着会让老年人受苦的寒冬
like in the US or UK where there’s
这些国家冬季的人口死亡率会很高
an excess of deaths during wintertime. But,
不过 另外一些因长寿而闻名的国家或地区
other places or countries also known for longevity
也有着和香港完全不同的气候环境
can actually have very different climatesthan Hong Kong
所以气候显然不是唯一的因素
so this certainly isn’t the only factor.
事实上 这仅仅
In fact, this is just the first
是我将要提及的八个因素中的一个
of eight that I’ll be covering.
我发现最后的这两个因素特别有意思
The last two here I find particularly fascinating.
当然 饮食也是影响因素之一
Now of course food is on this list.
香港对于美食有着地理上的便捷性
Hong Kong’s geographical access to goodfood isn’t surprising
这并不奇怪 因为香港是
given the region’s position
一个海洋和陆地的关口 连通了亚洲的许多区域
as a marine and land gateway to many parts of Asia.
当地的菜肴
The local cuisine is also
在许多方面与地中海的饮食习惯相似
in many ways similar to the Mediterranean diet
大多数的主流科研组织都推荐这类饮食
which most if not all major scientific organizations encourage
因为它可以预防主要的慢性疾病
for prevention of major chronic diseases.
香港人同时也会大量饮用
They also drink copious amounts
含有丰富的抗氧化剂
of herbal tea which has plenty of antioxidants
并且可以降低血压的花草茶
and lowers blood pressure levels.
不出意料 就像亚洲的许多地区一样
Not surprisingly, like in many parts of Asia,
你很少会在香港见到体格很大或是超重的人
you see very few big or overweight people in Hong Kong
事实上 在“为什么亚洲人可能不会肥胖”的视频中
actually I’ve already covered some of this in my video on
我已经提到了一些相关的信息(请参考那些陈词滥调)
why Asians supposedly don’t get fat(a reference to the stereotype)
你可以在下方的描述中找到
which you can find in the description below. Right,
对 出行便利性也是因素之一
accessibility is also a factor.
尽管香港人民住在密集的城市地区
Despite living in a dense urban area,
但他们可以很容易地使用到多种便利设施
Hong Kongers have easy access to most amenities
香港有着许多的人行道和天桥
there are numerous walkways and footbridges
这些东西感觉像是把所有地点都联结在了一起
that seem to connect anything to everything
事实上 它们虽然像迷宫一样复杂
actually it can be quite a maze
但也意味着更多的步行与更少的驾车出行(这很好)
but this means more walking and less driving(which is good).
尽管公共交通舒适又便宜
And this despite public transportation beingeasy and cheap.
开车去山里或是海边只需要很短的时间
Beaches and mountains are just a short drive
所以 参加诸如游泳和徒步这类的户外活动
away so taking part in physical outdoor activities
根本不成问题
like swimming and hiking is not an issue.
既然说到了保持健康生活
And speaking of keeping fit,
香港人民会经常自觉的意识到
people in Hong Kong are always consciously aware
自己需要锻炼来保持健康
of the need to exercise.
尤其是他们对慢跑似乎有些许的迷恋
There seems to be a slight obsession withjogging in particular
至少与我去过的别的地方相比 确是如此
at least compared to other place I’ve been to.
在香港 时常都能看到
It’s a frequent sight
不同体型
to see people of all shapes and sizes
不同年龄(不只是青壮年们)的人们
and of all ages(so it’s not just the hardcores)
在户外狭窄的人行道上跑步
running outside on the narrow walking routes.
至于年纪大的人 你可以看到
For older people, if not jogging,
如果他们不慢跑 那他们中许多人也是会早起
you’ll see many of them up early in parks and gardens
在公园或花园里练习太极或是气功
practicing Tai Chi or Qigong.
他们的这些锻炼地点
And these places they practice in,
在设计时都依循老人们的需求与能力
have been designed with their needs and capacities in mind.
这是个有利的环境
It’s an enabling environment,
香港几乎所有的区域都是
where almost all districts in Hong Kong are members of
世界卫生组织“全球年龄友好城市网”的成员
the WHO global network of age-friendly cities. Now,
硬货来了
here comes the sexy stuff,
因为香港有着顶尖的医疗保健体系
because Hong Kong’s healthcare system is also top notch.
所以年老的人们通常不用为初级治疗自掏腰包
Older people generally do not have to payfor primary care
并且所有人都能享受到医院的治疗服务
and everyone has access to hospital treatment.
在这里 没有人会因为缺乏途径而被拒绝治疗
Nobody here is denied due to a lack of means
便捷的医疗会有利于长寿 这不足为奇
and not surprisingly accessible health care leads to longevity.
而不好的一面是
The downside though is
人们看医生或去急诊室的频率
that people tend to go to doctors or emergency rooms
也越来越高了
a little too often.
最后再说明一点
Final note here is
香港的吸烟者比例很低
that Hong Kong also has a low proportion of smokers
只有10%的人口每天吸烟
where only about 10% of the population smoke every day
你可以与日本每日约20%人口吸烟进行对比
you can compare this with the 20% in Japan. Ok,
有这么个说法:“独处的人去世得越早”
here’s a statement:“people who live alone, die sooner”.
许多研究证明了这一点
Many studies have shown this.
但是在香港 这不是一个问题
However this isn’t an issue in Hong Kong, because,
如同许多东亚社会一样
like in many east Asian societies,
香港文化强调敬重和照料长辈
there’s a cultural emphasis on respect andcare for the elders
当人们老去时 牢固的家庭关系会提供相当可观的
strong family ties lead to considerable financial and social support
经济支持和社会保障
for people as they get older.
你经常可以看到一个大家庭每周都会在一起吃点心
You’ll often see large families dining togetherfor their weekly dimsum
同时 家中的小辈会确保爷爷奶奶们首先用餐
with younger members of the family ensuring grandma or grandpa is served first,
并且吃好吃饱
and served well.
不管你喜欢与否 家庭始终是第一位的
Family comes first, whether you like it ornot
并且 一个家庭里的三四代人
and it’s not uncommon to find
居住在同一屋檐下的情况 也并不少见
three or four generations of the family living under one roof.
有着如此的关心与照料
With all this care and attention,
寿命怎么不会提高呢
how can it not improve lifespan?
不只是家庭 朋友亦是如此
And it’s not just family… but friends.
香港年长的人们喜欢社交活动
Hong Kong’s senior citizens love a bit ofsocializing.
他们也热爱打麻将
They also love their mahjong;
这是一种历史悠久并极其受欢迎的中国智力游戏
a super popular centuries-old Chinese tile game
通常在巷子与客厅中进行
often played in side alleyways and in parlors.
老龄化专家说 麻将这种促进智力的游戏
Ageing experts say this mentally stimulating game helps
会帮助老年人们保持记忆力
with the retention of memory
延缓老年痴呆的发生
delaying the onset of dementia.
这还只是在老年人们不再工作的假设下
And all this is assuming they’re not still working
因为在香港没有法定的退休年龄
because in Hong Kong, there is nostatutory retirement age
你可以发现许多65岁以上的老人还在工作
so you’ll find many working well beyond the age of 65
这并不是个坏事
which isn’t such a bad thing
因为长期参与有组织的工作
as prolonged engagement in organized work
会让老年人更为长寿
often leads to a higher age of mortality. Alright,
好了 现在 我们来看看最有趣的一点(至少我觉得很有趣)
now, we’re at the most fascinatingpoint of all (at least I find it fascinating).
让我解释一下吧
Let me explain.
据估计 70%的70岁以上的香港人
An estimated 70 % of Hong Kongers over the age
并不是在香港出生的
of 70 were NOT born in Hong Kong.
他们是在中国大陆出生的
They were born in mainland China,
来到香港是为了寻找更好的机遇
having come over in search of better opportunities
他们遭受了包括大饥荒在内的文化大革命的苦果
they had suffered greatly from the Cultural Revolution, which included vast famine.
如今 这些人
Right now, these people are
处在本该临终的年纪
at an age where they should be dying
而且他们在大陆的
indeed that’s what’s happening
亲戚和同辈们 的确都已是风前残烛了
to their relatives and peers back in their village.
但他们没有这样 至少没有相同的死亡率
But they aren’t, at least not at the same rate.
这似乎指向了一件事——香港人的处事态度
And this seems to point to one thing -their attitude. Because,
因为那些在香港打拼成功的人
the ones that made it to Hong Kong had to be tough –
必须在体格与意志上都要坚强
both physically and mentally.
他们翻山越岭 跋山涉水
They climbed, they ran, they swam
有很多人试图来香港打拼 但是都未成功
and there were many who attempted the journey that didn’t make it.
东德人翻越柏林墙
Neither East Germans climbing the Berlin Wall
或是朝鲜人越境进入中国
nor the North Koreans crossing over to China
都无法与大规模涌入香港打拼的人相比
were comparable to this mass exodus to Hong Kong. So,
为什么这些人如今还健在呢?
why are they not yet dying off? Well,
或许当年那种激励着他们到达香港的
the physical and psychological attributes that
肉体和心理上的信念
helped them get to Hong Kong in the first place
正是当下推进香港人向前阔步的原因
may in part be responsible for what’sdriving them forward today.
因此 这个因素
Thus at least for the present time,
连同之前提到的因素一起
and in combination with the previous factors
使得香港至少在目前
this has lead to Hong Kong
成为了世界上拥有最长人均寿命的城市
having the longest average life expectancy
即便它是世界上污染最严重的城市之一
despite being one of the most polluted citiesin the world.
这也会令你好奇
Which makes you wonder –
(准备听好这个过时的引用)
how long they would actually live for
如果香港没有“五十度灰”
(and get ready for an outdated reference here)
香港人真真正正能活到多少岁呢
if not for Hong Kong’s 50 shades of grey.
如果你想活跃活跃大脑
If you want to exercise your brain and live a long,
过一个完美 健康的生活
healthy life, you can always take
你可以在“技能分享”上参加一些如这个一样促进智力的课程
a mentally stimulating course like this veryone on Skillshare.
“技能分享”是一个
You see, Skillshare is an amazing place
学习任何你想学的东西的完美地点
to learn what you want to learn.
这里有几乎涵盖所有方面的20000多节课
They have over 20,000 classes on pretty muchanything
从如何通过饮食或瑜伽来使你更加健康
from how to improve your health through meal planning or yoga
到怎么在油管上成功创作属于你自己有教育性意义的视频
to how to create your own successful educational video on YouTube…
就像本视频一样
hopefully like this one.
我个人发现西蒙·西内克的这节
I’ve personally found this class by SimonSinek incredibly useful
关于如何发表一个有效的展示的视频非常有帮助
on how to deliver an effective presentation.
如果对于
If you’re curious
我在油管视频中呈现视频主题的一些原则很好奇
about some of the principles I use when presenting the topics in my YouTube videos
你真的应该看看这条视频
this is one you should check out.
技巧分享的会员费用月均不到10美元
A membership to Skillshare is less than$10 a month
但如果
BUT if you’re one
你是前500位点击下方链接报名的人之一
of the first 500 people to sign up with the link below
前两个月的会员是会是免费的
you will get the first 2 months for free.
快来报名吧 祝好
Now just get out there and live a long happy life.

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译制信息
视频概述

一个满是矛盾点的亚洲城市,何以成为世界上人均长寿之城?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

PyroPigeon⁶

审核员

审核员RS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3JRRxxZ3Ig

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