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为什么这种字体无处不在

Why this font is everywhere

Hey, this is me on a stroll a few days ago.
嗨 这是我几天前散步回家时拍的
During this walk I noticed something,
散步时我注意到一些现象
so I started taking pictures of it.
因此我开始把它们拍下来
Eventually I got my co-workers to join in.
最后 我的同事也加入进来
Mac took this picture, and Agnes took this one.
Mac拍了这张 Agnes拍了这张
What we all noticed was this font.
我们都注意到了这种字体
If you’ve somehow managed to never see it on a storefront,
如果你从没在店铺门口见到过它
you’ve definitely seen it elsewhere.
那你一定在其它地方看到过它
Because it’s everywhere.
因为这种字体无处不在
Strip away the candy wrappers,
在剥开的糖纸上
movie posters, album covers, and corner store signs,
电影海报 专辑封面和街角商店的招牌上
and you’re left with this typeface.
你都能看到这种字体
It’s called Cooper Black,
这种字体叫Cooper Black
and the story of how it became so popular
它之所以大受欢迎
has everything to do with its versatility,
主要是因为它用途广泛
because these letters have been around for a century’s worth of changes
因为这些字母见证了一个世纪以来
in technology and pop culture.
技术和流行文化的变迁
[INTRO]
[片头曲]
To set the stage for the story, I talked to Stephen Heller.
为了准备这个故事 我连线了史蒂芬·海勒
Bear with me while I move to another part of the apartment.
等我一下 我到公寓另一边去
Among other things, he’s written like a library’s worth of books about design.
他写了很多关于设计的书 都能开个图书馆了
Okay, I’m back.
好了 我回来了
And this is Bethany Heck.
这是贝瑟尼·赫克
I am a designer who writes about typefaces.
我是个设计师 写一些关于字体的评论
She runs the Font Review Journal
她运营Font Review Journal网站
where she deconstructs the history and design of notable typefaces
她在这里解读著名字体的历史和设计
like Cooper Black.
比如Cooper Black
If you give me like two minutes
如果你给我两分钟
I can run and find an actual like physical piece of wood type
我可以找一些实物 比如木制雕版
and I can talk through some of this.
然后通过雕版来讲解
While she’s doing that,
等她找雕版的时候
let’s travel back in time a hundred years to the city of Chicago
我们先回到一百年前的芝加哥
where our story begins.
故事就从这里开始
It’s 1919 right after World War 1.
在1919年 第一次世界大战刚结束
Advertising was reaching an early zenith at that point
广告在那时达到早期的巅峰
because with the end of the war
因为随着战争结束
there was a great resurgence of product and demand.
产品和需求开始大规模复苏
The two dominating materials for commercial printing were wood and metal.
商业印刷所需的两种主材是木头和金属铅
Wood was cut out of the end pieces of hard wood,
所用的木头是由硬木的末端切割而来
they were usually large size typefaces
它们通常用于印刷大号字体
that were used for large-scale advertising and posters.
一般出现在大型广告和海报上
The bold typefaces you see in old wanted posters,
你在以前的通缉令上看到的粗体字
those were made from wood type.
就是用木字雕刻的
Metal was the process that was created by Gutenberg
铅字印刷是古腾堡发明的
when he designed the type for his Bible.
那时他为《古腾堡圣经》设计字体
Each individual character was physically formed into words,
单个金属字母块被拼凑在一起组成单词
and those words were cast into tiny lines of text.
词组又组合成细密成行的文本
Those molds allowed for smaller more precise blocks of type.
这些模具能容纳更小更精密的字块
That’s the kind of type that was used for most commercial purposes,
这种金属字块被广泛用于商业用途
from book publishing to magazine publishing.
图书和杂志的出版都离不开它
By the turn of the 20th century, huge Rube Goldberg-like machines
20世纪初 出现了一种鲁布·戈德堡式机械
called linotypes drastically sped up this process.
名为莱诺铸排机 极大的加快了印刷流程
This is the world Oswald Cooper,
这是Oswald Cooper生活的世界
Chicago’s preeminent letterer and illustrator lived in.
他是芝加哥杰出的文字雕刻师和插图师
In 1918, after years of making custom hand lettered ads
1918年 在为汽车公司和银行制作了多年
for car companies and banks,
手工字体广告之后
he designed a fully-formed typeface dubbed Cooper.
他设计了一套成熟的字体 名为Cooper
It took a classic Roman form and softened to the edges.
这套字体用了经典的罗马体并柔化了边缘
Seeing promise in Cooper’s design and the prior success of his lettering work,
因为看到Cooper字体的前景和他之前字体设计的成功
the type foundry Barnhart Brothers&Spindler
铸字厂Barnhart Brothers&Spindler
asked him to make a bold display typeface based on the font.
请他在Cooper字体的基础上制作一套粗字体
Around 1920, Oswald Cooper released Cooper Black,
约1920年 Oswald Cooper发布Cooper Black字体
and it was an immediate hit.
立刻引起了轰动
It was used for newspaper headlines and large-scale posters.
它被用于报纸标题和大尺寸海报
It sold cars, cold medicine, music lessons, turntables, and ginger ale.
它被用于汽车销售 感冒药 音乐课 转盘和姜汁饮料
With Cooper Black, it was like somebody
有了Cooper Black字体
took an air pump to a tire and blew up that tire.
就像有人用气泵给轮胎打气并打爆它
I mean this ad for Cooper Black credits the font for
这则广告里对该字体表扬道
getting five thousand customers into their client’s new store on opening day.
客户使用了Cooper Black字体 在开业当天吸引了5000名顾客
And in countless reviews, it was considered the most popular typeface design of the time.
无数评论称它为当时最受欢迎的字体
So what made it work so well?
所以 是什么让它如此成功呢?
For one, its curves.
其中一个原因是它的曲线
Perhaps the most unconventional aspect of the curves are
它的曲线最不同寻常的地方就在于
that willingness to be unafraid to curve the bottom parts of the letter forms.
特意地将字母底部弯曲
So if you look at the bottom parts of the stems of the “A”
因此如果你观察字母A的底部
like there’s no flat edges on that, which is very strange.
你会发现完全没有直边 这是很奇特的
If you look at most typefaces, they have flat bottom somewhere.
因为大多数字体多少都会有平坦的底部
Even Cooper Black’s imitations like Goudy Heavy and Pabst Extra Bold
甚至Cooper Black的模仿者 Goudy Heavy和Pabst Extra Bold这两种字体
failed to fully break tradition.
也未能完全打破这个传统
You want that consistent line for legibility,
连贯统一的直线能使字母易于辨认
and so the fact that Cooper doesn’t have that means
但Cooper字体没有这种直线
that it’s very forgiving to irregularities.
也就意味着这种不规则设计是没关系的
Like the baseline serif of one character naturally
比如这个字母的底部衬线自然地
flows right into the curve of another
流入另一个字母的曲线
even when the characters are slightly uneven.
即使字母有些不规则
Those irregularities look more like mistakes than quirks
在直边设计中 那些不规则看起来更像是错误
in straighter edged designs.
而非匠心独运的设计
The fact that Cooper doesn’t necessarily need to be laid in a straight line to look good is
Cooper不必一定要用直线才能看起来美观
an advantage. Let’s talk about this weird F.
这是优势 我们来说说这个奇怪的“F”
It’s an identifiable feature of Cooper Black.
这是Cooper Black字体的一个明显特征
Turns out it’s pretty genius.
事实证明这是个非常天才的想法
Draw a rectangle around that F,
在“F”周围绘制一个矩形
and you have to think like “okay I’ve got a draw of really bold F
你会想 “好吧 我得画一个非常粗的’F’
and I only have this rectangle of space to play with.”
我只能在这个矩形里发挥
You’ve got the crossbars, and then you’ve got the hook at the top,
这里画横线 然后顶端画上倒钩
and the serif at the bottom,
底部是衬线
you’re kind of like running out of space.
空间就这样占满了
The shape of this negative space in the ascender
上半部分形成的凹进去的空间
allowed Cooper to make the F as bold as possible for as much as possible
让Cooper设计的“F”尽可能粗的同时
while still maintaining legibility,
仍然保持辨识度
which wasn’t always the case for heavy typefaces of the time.
但这种字型在当时的粗体字中并不常见
This is actually a good example, like this is a very bold
这是一个很好的例子 就像这个很粗的数字“4”
four, and you can see that like the counter space in there is like really tiny.
可以看到中间的空间非常狭小
The tininess is what makes the four look bold and heavy,
这种狭小空间使“4”看起来粗而厚重
but that four could get sort of like filled up with ink and then essentially vanish. These
但这个“4”可能被填满墨水 最后糊掉
negative spaces within each character made Cooper Black incredibly light and friendly
字体中的凹进去的空间让Cooper Black轻盈友善
while still commanding attention.
同时还能抓人眼球
The fact that it worked both big and small was a huge selling point.
放大或缩小都很清晰 这正是一大卖点
Every character of Cooper Black has its own little quirks.
Cooper Black的每一个字母都有点独特之处
The G is always the thing that I think about first,
我总是先想到字母“G”
it has like this sort of anthropomorphic quality.
它有拟人化的质感
I think it looks like a duck.
我觉得小写的它像一只鸭子
Now that you say that, the Q kind of looks like a snail. Weird.
这么说的话 字母“Q”像一只蜗牛 好奇特
At any rate, I think the letter that shows just how fun and functional Cooper Black can be
无论如何 我觉得能展现Cooper Black趣味性和实用性的字母
has to be the O. A lot of typefaces have a vertical stress,
一定是“O” 许多字体遵循垂直力
so the oval inside would just point straight up and down.
因此里面的椭圆指向正上和正下方
Cooper’s tilts back, and while it looks off-kilter on its own,
而Cooper的“O”向后倾斜 尽管单独看起来有点歪
when placed in a word or phrase,
但是放在一个单词或短语里
it always seems to compliment the letters around it.
它和周围的字母看起来就是互补的
The central conflict that a type designer is facing is
字体设计师面对的核心冲突在于
how do I make something that feels cohesive as a whole design system
如何设计出有凝聚力的整体设计系统
as opposed to a beautiful collection of letters.
而不是一堆漂亮的字母集
Somehow Cooper achieved both.
某种程度上 Cooper两者都做到了
Oswald Cooper believed Cooper Black was at its best
Oswald Cooper认为Cooper Black字体最好的呈现方式是
when there was thin spacing between the words
字间距要窄
and not much leading between the lines.
行距也不要太宽
Basically it worked best when the letters were all cramped together.
总的来说 所有字母聚在一起是最好的
But that sometimes posed a problem.
但这有时也带来一个问题
Even when Cooper Black was first designed,
即使在最初设计Cooper Black的时候
like just the act of squishing type together tight was like
字体紧密地挤在一起
in some cases extremely difficult or impossible to do.
这种情况非常难甚至不可能做到
In the 1950s, two dramatically new ways of printing
20世纪50年代时 两种全新的印刷方式
made it easier to push letters closer together,
可以轻易地将字母压近
and that thrust Cooper Black into the second half of the 20th century.
使得Cooper Black在20世纪下半叶继续流行
There was a basic change in the material of which type is made,
字体的材料发生了根本转变
a change from lead to paper or film.
从铅字印刷变成了纸或胶片
The first was photo type hot metal typecasting
首先是热金属铸印
was replaced by film strips in dark rooms.
被暗室的胶片取代
And by the early 1960s machines like the phototypositor
到20世纪60年代早期 影印机这类器材体积较小
were small enough to fit in local print shops.
适合当地打印店使用
The other was the invention of dry rub transfers
另一个就是移印字的发明
which just required a ballpoint pen and a piece of paper.
只要一支圆珠笔和一张纸
It was perfect for customizing headlines.
就可以完美定制一套标题
Letraset, the company that made them marketed it
制作移印字的拉突雷塞公司以快速简单又经济为卖点
as fast, simple and economical.
推销这项技术
These two technologies opened up graphic design to more adventurous compositions,
这两种技术为平面设计带来了更大胆的组合
something wood and metal had struggled to do.
这是木材和金属难以做到的
And cooper black flourished.
Cooper Black随之蓬勃发展
It thrived as always in advertising.
它一如既往地在广告业方兴未艾
It’s friendly curves fit thetongue-in-cheek aesthetic of the 1960s and 70s.
它亲和的曲线符合上世纪六七十年代戏谑的审美
But it also showed up in magazines,
它也出现在杂志
movies and hundreds of album covers.
电影和数以百计的专辑封面上
Pet Sounds was like the quintessential setting.
《宠物之声》的标题便是典型的Cooper字体布局
Just look at the way the D works with the E and the Y in the
我们看“D”和 “E” 的搭配
“boys” fits so nicely over the O,
“Boys”中的“y”与“O”完美匹配
it’s fluidity is what makes it special
它的流畅性正是它的特别之处
and it’s boldness makes it special.
加粗的线条也是它的特点
I think all type designers would come in and say like they have an idea
我觉得所有字体设计师都会走进来说
of how a typeface is meant to be used,
他们知道怎样使用一种字体
but I think that a typeface doesn’t really reach its full potential
但我认为 一种字体只有在其他人用过之后
until it’s put into somebody else’s hands.
才能真正发挥它的潜力
Because Cooper black was readily available in letraset in typepositor catalogs,
因为Cooper Black在排字机目录中很容易找到
it was no longer just in the hands of professionals and designers.
它不再只是存在于专业人士和设计师的手中
It was in the hands of the DIYers of the counterculture movement.
它也在在反主流文化运动的DIY人士手中
It seamlessly jumped from Burger King to
从汉堡王无缝衔接到地下海报和杂志
underground posters and magazines and became a staple.
Cooper Black成为主流
The idea of using something that’s basic vernacular
你看 一些常见的语言
but using it with intention to make a statement is
会被有意用来表达一种观点
something that you see throughout design or cultural history.
这在设计和文化历史中是很常见的
These early hip-hop posters are actually the perfect example of Cooper blacks’
这些早期的嘻哈风格海报就是Cooper Black可变性和传播性的最好证明
adaptability and its legacy. Like take a look at this one. It doesn’t really
看看这张海报
matter that these are two lowercase Ls because the S fits so perfectly next to them
这两个小写的“l”并不突兀 因为和旁边的“S”十分搭配
and the types’ ability to be squeezed as tightly as possible and
即使在极端情况下 这些字体能够尽量压缩在一起
still be incredibly legible holds up even under extreme circumstances
同时仍非常清晰
It’s always fun to look at something that’s used an assertive lowbrow way and then
有趣的是 一些版面你看起来廉价粗俗
to realize that this isn’t like some cheap tacky thing.
但让人感到字体排版还挺认真的
This is actually like very good. That’s why Cooper Black is just as
它实际上非常好 正因为这样 Cooper Black在今天仍然很受欢迎
popular today as it was when it was first made from corner store signs and
从最初街角商店的招牌和时尚品牌
fashion brands to food packaging, grassroots movements and hip-hop album covers.
到食品包装 草根运动和嘻哈音乐的专辑封面
Cooper’s ability to work as like rebel
Cooper能被用于叛逆的涂鸦
in letterings and in photo type and as movable type and also now like in digital.
照片排版 活字排版 以及现在的数字排版
That’s why it’s everywhere,
所以它如今随处可见
and that’s something that Oswald Cooper couldn’t have predicted.
这种情形恐怕Oswald Cooper也没有预料到

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视频概述

视频介绍了Cooper Black这一沿用至今的字体

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

杨麦丝

审核员

审核员YUWI

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zu91meda2I8

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