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“落石”标志比大多数标志更重要

Why this "falling rocks" sign is more important than most

This is one of those problems that seems like it’d be really complicated to fix,
有些问题看着很复杂 结果有着很简单的解决办法
but turns out to have a simple solution.
但转眼你又发现这个简单的解决方法其实很复杂
But then that solution turns out to be really complicated.
现在就有一个这样的问题
This is Brienz in Switzerland.
这里是瑞士的布里恩茨
It’s a small alpine village surrounded by
这座阿尔卑斯村庄四面环山
absolutely beautiful hills and mountains that occasionally try to kill people.
但这些美丽的山脉偶尔也会夺人性命
This whole hillside is slowly sliding and slipping down.
这一整面山坡正在缓慢下滑
It can’t hold itself up.
它无法自己固定
Most of the time, it’s silent and still.
大多数时间里 它静止不动
But occasionally, a load of heavy rocks will tumble down.
但偶尔也会有很多重石滾落下来
Actually, I feel like “heavy rocks” isn’t really getting the point across.
实际上 我觉得说“重石”还不够准确
This is one of the rocks.
这是其中一块石头
And worst case,
在最糟的情况下
it’ll travel across that road at 10 or 20 kilometres an hour, sideways.
它会以每小时10到20公里的速度从侧面横穿公路
IN SWISS GERMAN:
[瑞士德语]整个村庄正迅速滑向山谷
每年下滑1.5米
但上方那一片有大量石块的区域
下滑的迅速更快
每年下滑7到8米
过去十来年 山体滑坡加速了
地表上的东西像加了开关一样不停翻转
速度大大加快
我们不了解其中的原因
这可能与1999年冬季的雪崩有关
渗入地下的水突然增多
村子虽无性命之虞 但这也够令人不快的了
因为房子上的裂痕越来越多
在最糟糕的情况下
约2200万立方米的山体滑坡会冲击此处
体积大致是齐阿普斯法老金字塔的8倍
由于如此强烈的地质运动
上面的石块异常松动
每当下雨或下雪
大石块就会滚落下来
The village is safe from the big individual rockfalls,
单独的巨石滑落不会威胁村庄的安全
it’s far enough away.
因为还离得够远
The road here, not so much.
但这里的公路就没那么安全了
It’d be far too expensive to build massive protection barriers all along there.
沿路修建大型保护隔离带的造价过高
And besides,
而且
the odds of a boulder actually hitting a car are small. But not zero.
巨石砸中一辆车的概率很小 但并非为零
So what you want
所以我们需要的是
is something that can automatically detect rockfalls and close the road.
可以自动监测落石并关闭道路的方法
Simple solution: a radar…
最简单的办法:雷达
and a stoplight.
再加上红绿灯
So if the radar detects rockfall in a certain defined area,
如果雷达在规定区域监测到落石
it triggers an alarm.
就会触发警报
The traffic lights go red,
红绿灯会变成红色
and then the radar tracks the rockfall.
接着雷达会追踪落石轨迹
If the rockfall stops or it ends up in the dam,
如果落石停下来或被护坝拦截
then the traffic light switches off, goes back to normal,
红绿灯就会关闭 一切恢复正常
the road is safe to pass.,
公路可安全通行
If the rockfall ends up somewhere close to the road,
如果落石停在靠近公路的地方
the traffic light switches to flashing orange,
红绿灯会变成橘黄色
which means “drive carefully”,
提示你“小心驾驶”
because a boulder could be on the road,
因为巨石可能就在道路上
or the road could be damaged.
或路面可能被破坏
Radar has the large benefit that it works in all weather
雷达有个极大的好处 它可在全天候和
and all visibility conditions.
全可视条件下工作
Radar waves can penetrate fog, rainfall, snowfall;
雷达波可穿透雾气 落雨 和落雪
and hence, works day and night and in all visibility conditions,
因此可以在全可视条件下日夜运行
which is needed for an alarm system.
而其需要报警系统的支持
The traffic lights are about 450 meters apart,
在被认为有通行危险的区域
which is the area considered as dangerous for the traffic.
每间隔450米设置一个红绿灯
We’ve got about 40 seconds from detachment to a rock reaching the road,
石头从脱落到抵达公路大约需要40秒
and this is just enough for the cars to escape the dangerous area.
时间足够车辆逃离危险区域
They have to drive a certain velocity,
车辆必须以一定的速度通行
otherwise they can’t get away.
不然它们来不及离开
And this is why cyclists are not allowed on this road.
这也是禁止自行车爱好者使用此路的原因
Here’s the complicated bit:
但麻烦的一点是
you can’t just have this stop traffic
不可能但凡雷达监测到什么活动
any time the radar detects movement.
你都把交通停下来
Birds would set it off.
鸟类可能会导致公路关闭
My drone would set it off.
我的无人机可能会导致公路关闭
Mischievous kids throwing pebbles would set it off.
淘气小孩子扔扔石子都可能导致公路关闭
On that note…
就像这样
How do you calibrate something like this?
你会怎样校正这类情况呢?
We don’t have a lot of false alarms.
我们没有很多误报
It’s very rare that we close the road because of something else,
我们很少因为其它情况关闭公路
for example,
比如说
an approaching rain front that could look kind of similar.
有些类似于这种情况的正在接近的雨带
Since this is such an active site,
因为这块区域很活跃
this is the perfect site to tune your algorithms or to develop the algorithms at all.
用它来调试甚至提升你的算法非常合适
We installed the radar in 2017,
我们在2017年安装了雷达
and after a test period of about a year,
经过约一年的测试期
it went live with the traffic lights.
它开始和红绿灯共同运行
And since installation, we’ve detected five and a half thousand events.
安装至今 我们已监测到5500次活动
From an engineering perspective,
从工程角度来看
setting up a radar and a stoplight is the easy part.
安装雷达和红绿灯是简单的那一部分
The complicated part is working out the balance between
复杂的那部分是在误报中找到平衡点
false positives, where the road is going to be closed half the time,
监测太敏感意味着公路有一半时间会被关闭
and false negatives, where cars could get hit by boulders.
监测不敏感则意味着车辆可能被砸到
Now I haven’t seen any rockfalls here today,
今天我还没看到任何落石
and I also haven’t seen the lights change.
也还没看到红绿灯变换
And their logs now have thousands of rockfalls
他们的日志已经记录了数千次
where the lights did turn red.
触发红灯警告的落石
So I’d say: they probably got it about right.
所以我得说 他们很可能做得对
I mean, I know it was too much to hope for,
我知道我想要的太多了
I was just hoping there’d be just a little rock fall as I finished? Just…
我只是希望在结束时能看到小小的落石
just like a little one. Not doing any damage.
就是那么小小的一块 没有任何危险
Just a few.
就一点
Let’s do that again!
再来一次!
Let’s do that again without worrying that a rock’s going to hit me.
再来一次 不用担心石头砸到我

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视频概述

看看他们是如何找到监测落石并迅速关闭公路的办法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

何不秉烛游

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o-oVXYkBwgw

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