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为什么这么多电影中出现这种令人毛骨悚然的旋律

Why this creepy melody is in so many movies

Remember when Mufasa died?
记得木法沙死的时候吗?
Or when Luke Skywalker’s aunt and uncle were killed?
还有卢克·天行者的阿姨和叔叔被杀的时候?
Or even when George Bailey decided he couldn’t bear to live anymore?
还有乔治·贝利觉得自己活不下去的时候?
These are some of the most grim, tragic moments in film history,
这些都是电影史上最残酷 最悲惨的时刻
but they have something else in common.
但是它们还有点别的共同点
Once you start paying attention, these four notes are everywhere
只要你仔细观察 会发现这四个音符无处不在
《善地》2019
《蝙蝠侠归来》1992
《第三类接触》1977
《指环王:护戒使者》2001
And we’ve been associating them with death for almost 800 years.
而且其与死亡联系在一起已有近800年了
What you’re hearing in those movies is called the “dies irae,”
你在上述电影里听到的音调叫“dies irae”
A Gregorian chant created by Catholic monks around the 13th century.
是天主教僧侣在13世纪左右创造出的格里高利圣歌
It was used for one specific mass: funerals.
用于一个特定的弥撒:葬礼
[Latin chant plays]
[拉丁吟唱剧]
“Dies irae” translates from Latin to “Day of Wrath.”
“dies irae”从拉丁语翻译过来就是《震怒之日》
That’s the day Catholics believe God will judge the living and the dead
天主教徒认为 上帝会在这一天审判生者和逝者
and decide whether they go to heaven or hell for eternity.
并决定让他们是永远升入天堂还是投入地狱
It really is the sort of fire and brimstone passage that’s talking about the day of reckoning
它其实是讲述末日审判炼狱之苦的文段
where in essence the decision is being made whether you’re going to heaven or you’re going to hell.
本质上是决定你去天堂还是地狱的一个过程
That’s Alex Ludwig, a musicologist and professor from the
这位是亚历克斯·路德维希 一名音乐学家兼教授
Berklee College of Music who keeps a big list of dies irae references in movies.
他来自伯克利音乐学院 在电影中保留了大量《震怒之日》的参考书目
The musical material and the text combine together to create this sort of ominous sort of sense of dread.
那音乐和文字结合在一起就营造出了那种不祥 恐惧之感
Over the next few hundred years, the Church’s influence spread considerably,
在接下来的几百年里 教会的影响显著扩大
and the Day of Wrath started popping up in works of art outside the church,
《震怒之日》 开始出现在教会以外的艺术作品中
like Mozart’s 1791 symphony “Requiem,” influenced by the music of funerals.
比如莫扎特1791年创作的交响乐《安魂曲》 就深受葬礼音乐的影响
In 1830, French composer Louis-Hector Berlioz
1830年 法国作曲家路易斯·赫克托·柏辽兹
took the dies irae’s cultural capital to a new level.
把《震怒之日》的文化价值提升到了一个新的高度
In his “Symphonie fantastique,” he lifted the melody but left out the words.
在他的《幻想交响曲》中 他提高了这首赞美诗的音调 但省略了歌词
Berlioz’s story isn’t set in a church or funeral
柏辽兹在《幻想交响曲》中讲述的不是以教会或者葬礼为背景的故事
— it’s about an obsessive love,
而是关于一场疯狂的爱情
in which the main character dreams that the lover
讲述了主角梦见他谋杀的情人
he murdered has come back as a witch to torment him.
变成女巫回来折磨他
The movement is called “The Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath.”
这一乐章名为《女巫安息日之梦》
And so it’s set at midnight in a graveyard
所以它是在午夜的墓地里进行的
and there are all these creepy spooky pieces of music, including the dies irae.
这里面有很多恐怖的音乐 其中包含了“震怒之日”
What better piece of spooky music to play?
还有什么比这更适合做恐怖音乐?
Because this is a piece of music that already had these connotations behind it.
毕竟这段旋律里已经有这种内涵了
Other great composers added versions of the dies irae to their works too,
其他伟大的作曲家也在他们的作品中加入了各种版本的“震怒之日”
like Hungarian composer Franz Liszt’s Totentanz, or Dance of the Dead,
比如匈牙利作曲家弗朗西李斯特《死亡之舞》的创作
inspired by this medieval painting depicting suffering and death,
就是受到中世纪画作中描绘的苦难和死亡的启发
or Giuseppe Verdi’s Messa da Requiem.
再比如威尔蒂的《安魂曲》
And then we have the early silent films.
还有早期的无声电影
Where the dies irae is then extracted even further
那些电影对“震怒之日”做了进一步的提取
and used as a sort of sample or sort of reference to dark ominous actions
并用来暗示某种黑暗不详的行为
taking place on screen.
正在上演
Silent films were often accompanied by full orchestras, playing songs
无声电影经常借助管弦乐队的伴奏
that helped propel soundless stories along. Like 1927’s Metropolis,
服务其无声故事情节的推进 比如1927年的《大都会》
a silent German sci-fi about a dystopia full of robots and destruction
这部德国无声科幻电影 描绘了一个充满机器人和破坏的反乌托邦
— which uses the dies irae in a particularly dramatic moment.
那部电影在一个格外戏剧性的时刻用到了“震怒之日”
As films started incorporating sound,
随着电影开始融入声音
the dies irae kept being used as a shorthand for something grim.
“震怒之日” 就成了残酷的代名词
Like in It’s a Wonderful Life and Star Wars: A New Hope.
比如在《美好人生》和《星球大战:新希望》中
But perhaps its most iconic use is in The Shining.
但是它最具代表性的应用可能是在《闪灵》这部影片中
Everyone knows The Shining is a horror film and it’s like, that’s the perfect signifier for the dies irae.
众所周知 《闪灵》是部恐怖片 而它也是“震怒之日”完美的象征
The dies irae has come a long way from 13th-century funerals to scary movies.
从13世纪的葬礼到恐怖电影 “震怒之日”经历了一条漫长的路
That’s because there’s something about those four notes that makes us feel uncomfortable.
那是因为里面的四个音符让我们觉得不舒服
Let’s talk about the music.
我们来谈谈音乐吧
The chant is in what’s called Dorian mode — and we don’t have to dig into all the ancient modes like that
这首乐曲采用的是“多利安调式”——我们不必过于纠结类似的古代调子
— but today if you would play those first four notes you would say that that’s in a minor mode.
但是今天 如果你要演奏这前四个音符 你会说那是个小调式
Minor music has always had this connotation of sadness, of darkness.
小调音乐总是有悲伤的 黑暗的含义
If you look at the actual notes, you’ll see that F and E are half steps apart,
如果你看了实际的音符 你会发现F和E只相差了半个音调
right next to each other.
彼此挨得很近
Our ears are trained not to like those sounds together.
我们的耳朵不习惯听到这两个音一起出现
Plus, the notes descend, getting deeper as the phrase progresses.
另外 随着乐曲进行 音调越来越低
Musical lines that descend are sad
音调往下走的曲子显得悲伤
whereas music that ascends, that rises, is much happier.
而音调往上走的曲子会显得欢快
Combine these three things together and you’ve got an inherently spooky song —
这三点结合起来 就成了一首让人毛骨悚然的乐曲——
even without all the fire and brimstone.
即便没有讲述炼狱之苦
If you talk to a music professor like Alex, they’ll tell you the dies irae is everywhere.
如果你和亚历克斯这样的音乐教授交谈的话 他们会告诉你“震怒之日”无处不在
And it is — but maybe not in places untrained ears will catch.
的确如此 但是未经过训练的耳朵可能听不出来
The phrase has become so culturally ingrained that even a modified version
它已经深深扎根在了文化之中 以至于修改过的版本
— like the theme to The Exorcist
比如《驱魔人》的主题曲
— or a shortened version, like the Nightmare Before Christmas
还有删减过的版本 比如《圣诞夜惊魂》
can suggest the same scary feeling.
都能传达出类似的恐怖之感
It’s just that it it fascinates me that this piece of music still gets used.
让我感到神奇的是大家仍然在用这首曲子
I’m still hearing them. I’m still adding films to my list.
我仍可以听到这个旋律 仍然在看这类电影

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视频概述

在电影史上,很多残酷、悲惨的时刻,都会播放一种令人毛骨悚然的乐曲。这首乐曲的调式被人不断改编,并应用于许多恐怖电影中。然而,这首曲子早在13世纪就已存在。而在当时,它却被用于葬礼和教会当中......

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收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-79147

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3-bVRYRnSM

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