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为什么感觉回程会短一些(即便其实并没有) – 译学馆
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为什么感觉回程会短一些(即便其实并没有)

Why the Way Back Feels Shorter (Even When it Isn't)

[片头曲]
[ ♪ INTRO ]
你可能有过这样的经历
You’ve probably experienced it before:
去杂货店或其他地方时
you go to the grocery store or wherever,
由于某些奇怪的原因
and for some weird reason,
回程似乎比去时用的时间少
coming back seems to take a lot less time than getting there did.
好奇怪啊
Weirdly less time.
让人百思不得其解
Suspiciously less time.
为什么花的时间就会不一样了呢?!
What kind of wibbly-wobbly timey-wimey stuff is this?!
不过 幸好
Well, good news.
被外星人绑架之类的事估计不会发生在你身上
You probably weren’t abducted by aliens or anything like that.
除非你在路上遇到了交通堵塞或其他什么事
And unless you got stuck in traffic or something on the way out,
否则你的回程其实并不会缩短
your route back wasn’t actually shorter.
你只是在经历返程效应
You’re just experiencing the return trip effect
因为你的大脑不能
because your brain isn’t all that
准确估计花费的时间
accurate at estimating how long things take.
人们常有回程更短的感觉
This feeling that the way back is shorter is so universal
以至于数十年来 心理学家一直在努力推断它产生的原因
that psychologists have been trying to understand why it happens for decades.
早在20世纪50年代
Back in the 1950s,
研究者就提出返程效应与熟悉程度有关
researchers proposed that it was due to familiarity,
这在某种程度上解释得通
which would kind of make sense.
他们提出 在去的路上
They figured that on the way out,
你会积极地关注各种各样的新事物
you’re actively paying attention to all sorts of new sights,
你能真切地感觉到每一秒的流逝
so you really feel every second as it passes.
但在回来的路上
But on the way back,
你可能会注意到一些地标
while you might note a few landmarks,
但是不再那么注意看各种事物了 因为你之前都见过了
you just aren’t noticing things the same way because you’ve seen it all before.
并且由于你关注得少了
And because you’re paying less attention,
你对时间的估计就不准了
your ability to estimate time gets a little, well, warped.
有证据表明 比如说关注时间的流逝
There’s evidence that things like attention to the passage of time,
在一段时间内经历了几件事
the number of events we experience during a period of time,
以及无聊 不耐烦的情绪
and stuff like boredom and impatience
都会扰乱你对时间的感知
can mess up how you perceive time.
熟悉感可以潜移默化地影响上述任意一种感受
And familiarity could potentially affect any of those.
但是 实际上没有多少证据表明
But… there’s actually not much support
熟悉感导致了返程效应
for the idea that familiarity is to blame.
例如 某研究发现
For example, one study found that
只要参与者在看视频时
as long as participants watching a video
感觉自己在移动
had the sense that they were moving,
再告诉他们回去的路和来时一样
just being told that the way back was the way back
就足以使他们产生路程变短的感觉
was enough to make it feel shorter.
这很不可思议吧
Which is bonkers.
更多的研究发现
And more studies have found
实际上 在路上时 你对时间的感知并没有发生错误
that you don’t actually perceive the time wrong in the moment.
在2015年的一项研究中 要求参与者
When participants in a 2015 study were asked
每当自己觉得过了三分钟 就告诉研究人员
to tell the researchers every time they thought three minutes had passed,
参与者们在观看去路
they did equally well when watching videos of an outbound trip,
返程以及相同长度的替换路线时的表现基本相同
a return trip, and an alternate route of the same length.
但事后回想起这段经历时
But when reflecting on the experience afterwards,
突然间 他们觉得回程的视频
all of a sudden, they thought the return trip video
比其他两个短
was shorter than the other two.
你懂的 有时事后也并非诸葛
So, you know, hindsight not so 20/20.
这些全都表明返程效应
This all suggests that the return trip effect
与事后自己对那件事的认知有关
has something to do with the stories we tell ourselves after the fact,
而与我们感知时间的方式无关
not how we perceive time.
很奇怪也很酷 但是
Weird and cool as that is, though,
它并没有阐明我们犯错的原因
it doesn’t tell us why we make the error.
最近一个观点似乎颇受心理学家亲睐:
The most recent idea, which seems to be gaining traction among psychologists,
回程效应发生原因是期望悖反
is that it happens because of a violation of expectations.
一般来说 我们特别不擅长
In general, we’re pretty bad at
估计做某事需要花费的时间
estimating how long things will take.
那些总是等到最后一分钟才写论文
Anyone who has ever waited until the last minute to write a paper
或在飞机起飞前45分钟才疯狂打包的
or packed desperately 45 minutes before their flight takes off
人们应该深有所感
knows this very well.
所以 和生活中大多数事一样
So, like most things in our lives,
我们低估了去路所需的时间
we think the outbound trip will take less time than it actually does.
所以我们在去路时感觉特别难熬
And that makes it feel painfully long.
然后 在回程路上
Then, on the return trip,
我们会调整期望:
we adjust our expectations:
路上会花很长时间 我们调整下预期吧
it’s gonna take forever and we just got a deal.
但是去路的痛苦导致
But the sheer misery of the outbound trip means
我们高估了回程所需的时间
that we overestimate the return trip.
我们以为回程会特别长
We expect it to be extra painfully long,
然后我们最终惊喜地发现
and then we end up being pleasantly
它是如此之短
surprised by how short it is.
当然 这只是个假设
But, of course, that’s just a hypothesis —
所以2011年发表在《心理环境通报与评论》上的一项研究
so a 2011 study published in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
切实地测试了该理论和熟悉度假说
tested it and the familiarity hypothesis head-to-head.
他们让93个大学新生在学年开始时骑自行车去森林
They had 93 college freshmen bike to a forest
玩一些 “开始了解你”的团队游戏
for some get-to-know-you bonding games at the beginning of the school year.
这些学生沿一条路骑车出去
The students biked out one way and then
然后沿相同的路或一条不同的
came back either the same way or a new and different
但所需时间相同的新路返回
way that took the same amount of time.
从任意一条路返回的学生
The return trip effect showed up
都表现出了返程效应
regardless of which way they went back,
因此熟悉度不会让人感觉骑行的时间变短
so familiarity didn’t make the rides feel shorter.
但当学生们认为
But the effect was more extreme when the
去时花费的时间比预料的长时 返程效应愈发明显
student thought the outbound trip took longer than they’d expected it to.
事实上 与开始时的期望偏离得越大
In fact, the more off their expectations were at first,
他们对回程所需的时间的判断越不准确
the worse they were at judging how long it took to get back…
这证实了可能是期望值
Which is exactly what you’d expect if it was expectations,
而非熟悉感 即你的期望引发了返程效应
not familiarity, causing the return effect.
并且这与其他的研究结果相吻合
And that fits nicely with the other studies.
归根结底 它更多的和我们心中
Ultimately, it’s more about how we
如何看待和规划回程有关
think about and frame the return trip in our minds
而非重要时刻发生了什么
than what’s happening in the moment that matters.
这可能也回答了另一个永恒的问题:
And that also potentially answers another timeless question:
为什么总感觉每天通勤时间很久?
why your daily commute always feels so long.
因为你对上班的路线了如指掌
You know every inch of your route to work all too well,
所以你能很好地预测需要花费的时间
so you’re super good at predicting how long it will take.
这意味着你很少会感到惊喜
and that means you’re rarely pleasantly surprised.
感谢收看本期心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
如果你喜欢这个视频
If you like this episode,
你可能也会喜欢我们这期视频:
you might also like our episode on
门廊真的会导致你健忘吗?
whether doorways really make you forget things.
[片尾曲]
[ ♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

你知道返程效应吗?你会觉得回程要比去的时候短吗?回程效应和什么有关呢?熟悉度吗?其实是和你的期望有关,到底是怎么回事呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=biYd_f3QvyA

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