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为什么毒品如此难以杜绝

Why The War on Drugs Is a Huge Failure

40年前 美国总统理查德·尼克松
Over 40 years ago, US President Richard Nixon
宣布药物滥用为头号公敌
declared drug abuse public enemy number one,
开始了一场史无前例的全球性战役:毒品战争
starting an unprecedented global campaign, the War on Drugs.
一直持续到今天
Today, the numbers are in.
毒品战争是一个巨大的失败带来了意想不到的毁灭性的结果
The War on Drugs is a huge failure, with devastating unintended consequences.
它导致了美国出现大规模监禁
It led to mass incarceration in the US;
腐败 政治不稳定和暴力
to corruption, political destabilization, and violence
在拉丁美洲 亚洲和 非洲蔓延
in Latin America, Asia, and Africa;
导致了全球性的人权侵犯
to systemic human rights abuses across the world.
数百万计人民的生活受到了严重影响
It negatively affected the lives of millions of people.
我们每年浪费数十亿美元
All of this while we waste billions of dollars every year
最终却导致众多贩毒集团的建立与壮大
only to create and fuel powerful drug cartels
这与毒品战争最初的目标似乎相去甚远
while the goal of the War on Drugs seems less achievable than ever:
这个目标是:一个没有毒品的世界
a world without drugs.
为什么会发生这种事呢?
How could this happen?
毒品战争的核心战略是:没有毒品 就没有问题
The core strategy of the War on Drugs is “no drugs, no problems”.
所以在过去的数十年里 人们几乎一直努力于
So almost all of the efforts in the last few decades
根除毒品的供给
have been focused on eradicating the supply of drugs
以及抓捕毒贩
and incarcerating drug traffickers.
而忽略了市场最根本的动力
But this ignores the most fundamental of market forces,
供求法则
supply and demand.
如果你减少了物品的供给而没有先减少需求
If you reduce the supply of anything without reducing the demand first,
它的价格会被拉高
its price goes up.
对于很多产品而言 这可能会使其销售量降低但是对毒品而言却不是这样
This might lower sales for many products, but not for drugs.
毒品市场并不是价格驱动的
The drugs market is not price-sensitive.
不管价格如何 毒品仍会有人购买
Drugs will be consumed no matter what they cost.
所以结果是鼓励人们生产更多的毒品
So the effect is to encourage production of more drugs and
征召更多的毒贩 使毒品流通更便利
recruitment of more traffickers, which increases availability.
这就是所谓的气球效应:即使毒品生产
This is also known as the balloon effect: even if drug production or
或毒品主要的供应链被摧毁了供应链的消费者端也不会减少
a major supply route is destroyed, the supply for the end user is not reduced.
最好的例子就是冰毒
A perfect example of this is crystal meth.
美国政府为了遏制冰毒的制造
The US Government tried to stop its production
严格限制了可以制造冰毒的化学原料的销售
by strictly regulating the sale of chemicals used to manufacture the drug.
这迫使大的冰毒生产商停业
This forced big meth producers out of business,
但是令人意想不到是数以千计的小规模制毒工厂
but the unintended consequences were that thousands of small-scale operations
在全国各地出现 大多数分布在小镇和郊区
started all over the country, mostly in small towns and rural communities,
使用着未被监管的化学原料进行生产
using chemicals that weren’t regulated.
对于此种情况 美国一些州为了降低本土冰毒的供应
In response to this, some US states wanted to reduce the supply of home-grown meth
限制了更多的化学原料供应
by regulating even more chemicals,
这使小规模生产急剧降低
which reduced small-scale meth production drastically.
但是冰毒的供应仍然保持不变
But the supply of meth still stayed the same.
墨西哥贩毒集团迅速接手开始大规模生产
Mexican drug cartels immediately took over and opened big production operations.
他们的冰毒甚至比之前的还要好
Their meth was even better than it was before,
同时他们也有很多走私经验
and they had lots of experience in smuggling.
所有的这些努力使冰毒的生产更加专业
So all these efforts made meth production more professional,
毒品更加有效 毒品供应也一点没有减少
the drug more potent, while supply wasn’t reduced at all.
在供应方面毒品战争是不可能赢得胜利的
You can’t win this war on the supply side.
不仅是毒品广泛使用 需求不断
Not only are drugs widely available, demand unbroken,
毒品比以前纯度更高更创造了大约300亿的商机
and some drugs purer than in the past, with a budget of around $30 billion,
美国缉毒局的效率不到1%
the US Drug Enforcement Agency has an efficiency rate of less than 1%
对于阻止美国境内外的毒品流通而言
when it comes to stopping the flow of drugs into the US and inside the US.
对于世界各地许多未成年人而言非法毒品的取得像酒精一样简单
For many minors around the world, it’s as easy to get illegal drugs as alcohol.
这还没完
But it doesn’t stop here.
禁令可能会阻止一定数量的人吸毒
Prohibition may prevent a certain amount of people from taking drugs,
但是这个过程会导致整个社会的巨大损失
but in the process it causes huge damage to society as a whole.
许多关于毒品滥用的问题
Many of the problems we associate with drug use
事实上是源于对抗毒品的战争中
are actually caused by the war against them.
比如说 禁止毒品会使毒品更加强大
For example, prohibition makes drugs stronger.
更有效的毒品使存储的空间更加小
The more potent drugs you can store in as little space as possible,
就会获得更多的利润
the more profit you’ll make.
这和禁止饮酒一样
It was the same during alcohol prohibition,
会促使人们消费更多比啤酒更烈的酒
which led to an increased consumption of strong liquor over beer.
毒品禁令也可在世界各地导致更多的暴力冲突和谋杀
The prohibition of drugs also led to more violence and murders around the world.
不法帮派和毒贩没法通过法律途径解决争端
Gangs and cartels have no access to the legal system to settle disputes,
因此他们使用武力
so they use violence.
这导致暴行恶性循环似的增加
This led to an ever-increasing spiral of brutality.
据估计 美国的谋杀率
According to some estimates, the homicide rate in the US
因为毒品战争升高了25%~75%
is 25–75% higher because of the War on Drugs.
在墨西哥的毒品前线
And in Mexico, the country on the frontline,
约有164000人在2007~2014年被杀害
an estimated 164,000 have been murdered between 2007 and 2014,
比同一时期在阿富汗和伊拉克战争地区死去的人更多
more people than in the war zones of Afghanistan and Iraq in the same period, combined.
但是 毒品战争对社会造成破坏最大的可能是
But where the War on Drugs might do the most damage to society
监禁那些非暴力的毒贩
is the incarceration of non-violent drug offenders.
比如说 美国
For example, the United States,
作为毒品战争的驱动力之一
one of the driving forces of the War on Drugs,
人口占世界总人口的5%囚犯人数却占世界的25%
has 5% of the world’s total population, but 25% of the world’s prison population,
这主要是由于对毒品的严酷惩罚和强制禁止
largely due to the harsh punishments and mandatory minimums.
少数族群也因此遭受更大损害
Minorities suffer because of this especially.
非裔美国人占了所有美国囚犯40%
African Americans make up 40% of all US prison inmates.
白人孩子虽然更有可能滥用毒品
And while white kids are more likely to abuse drugs,
但黑人小孩因毒品犯罪被逮捕的可能性比白人孩子高10倍
black kids are 10 times more likely to get arrested for drug offenses.
好的 现在我们可以去做一些不同的事了吧?
OK, but is there actually something different we could do?
是否有方法摆脱现在这种混乱的局面呢?
Is there a way out of this mess?
十九世纪八十年的瑞士
In the 1980s, Switzerland experienced
海洛因滥用导致了公共健康危机
a public health crisis related to heroin use.
激增的艾滋病病毒感染率和街头犯罪成为了社会问题
HIV rates skyrocketed and street crime became a problem.
瑞士政府尝试了一项新策略:减少危害
Swiss authorities tried a new strategy: harm reduction.
他们成立了免费的海洛因供应中心
They opened free heroin maintenance centers,
在这里吸毒者会被照顾和治疗
where addicts would be treated and stabilized.
这里会提供给人们高质量的海洛因
Here, people would be given free heroin of high quality,
他们可以使用干净的针头 安全的注射室
they would get clean needles and have access to safe injection rooms,
淋浴间 床 和医疗照护
showers, beds, and medical supervision.
社会工作者帮他们寻找住房解决生活中的其他问题
Social workers help them find housing and deal with other problems in their lives.
结果是与毒品相关犯罪急剧下降
The results were a sharp drop in drug-related crime
并且中心内三分之二的人都得到了稳定的工作
and two thirds of the people in the centers got regular jobs,
因为现在他们可以专注于让自己生活得更好
because now they could focus on getting better
而不是为了吸食毒品四处筹钱
insetad of financing their addiction.
如今 瑞士超过70%的成瘾者接受了这种治疗
Today, over 70% of all heroin addicts in Switzerland receive treatment.
艾滋病病毒的感染率也大大下降
HIV infections have dropped drastically.
因海洛因注射过量而死亡的人也下降了50%
Deaths from heroin overdoses have dropped by 50%.
与毒品有关的街头性交易和犯罪也大大减少
And drug-related street sex work and crime has been reduced enormously.
所以有些方法不仅更便宜
So there are methods that are not only way cheaper,
也很有效 而且不会制造更多的问题
but also actually work, instead of creating more problems.
禁毒导致了一系列的人权被剥夺
Drug prohibition led to a system that bulldozes human rights,
大量金钱被消耗 制造了众多的人间悲剧
costs vasts sums of money, and creates a lot of human misery,
所有这些都因为追求不能达到的目标
all in pursuit of an unobtainable goal.
经过四十年的抗战 是时候结束这场毒品战争了
After 40 years of fighting, it’s time to finally end the War on Drugs
然后去找寻更好的方法
and move on to something better.
这部影片由Open Society Foundations
This video was supported by the Open Society Foundations
和在Patreon捐款的观众支持完成
and by viewer donations on Patreon.
如果你想了解更多如何影响毒品政策的方法
If you want to learn more about how you can influence drug policy,
去看看Stop the Harm活动吧
check out the Stop the Harm campaign.
我们终于有了一些商品
We finally have some merchandise!
如果你想获得Kurzgesagt海报 T恤 杯子
If you want your own Kurzgesagt poster, T-shirt, mug,
或小怪兽贴纸
or stickers of little monsters,
你现在可以去往DFTBA商店购买
you can get them now at the DFTBA store!
字幕来源:the Amara org community
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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