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扑朔迷离的维京历史 – 译学馆
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扑朔迷离的维京历史

Why the Vikings Disappeared

Dragons, Thor and brutality
西方龙 雷神托尔和残忍
that’s the common perception of the Vikings.
是大多数人对维京人的印象
They made a stand on the world
他们通过在斯堪的纳维亚半岛大本营以外
through exploration outside their Scandinavian roots.
向往探索 在地球上留下了印记
but today they still are quite commonly misrepresented.
但直至今日 他们仍被歪曲相传
The Viking Age lasted just over 300 years,
维京时代前后只延续了300多年
starting in the mid 700s and ending around 1066.
始于8世纪中叶终于1066年左右
During that time the Vikings raided countless villages,
在那期间 他们洗劫了无数的村庄
conquered lands and explored new areas of the planet.
攻占土地 探索这个星球上的新地域
It is basically common knolwdge that
众所周知
their culture has been some somewhat misrepresented in the past.
在过去他们的文化多少有点被歪曲误传
No, they didn’t have horns on their war helmets and they didn’t all have mad sprite
他们的战盔上并没有角 他们也并非人人都有大胡子
In honesty though, we don’t really know that much about what they were really like.
但说实话 对于他们的真面目我们知之甚少
They weren’t too fond of writing their history
他们并不热衷于记载自己的事迹
and their societies were spread so far apart
而且他们的社群相距甚远
Their authentic Viking writings of their culture and life are far and few between
以至于真实记录维京文化和生活的文字少之又少
Nearly everything of what we know about them is from accounts of their enemies
我们对他们的了解几乎都来自于他们敌人的讲述
or written centuries after the Viking Age ended.
或来自维京时代结束后多年才书写的文献
Today I wanted to give a quick overview of who the Vikings were,
今天我会简要介绍下维京人是何方神圣
what they did and why they disappeared.
他们做过什么 以及他们为什么销声匿迹
Vikings were Nords. They originated in Scandinavia
维京人是来自于斯堪的纳维亚半岛的诺德人
and were mostly focused on raiding and exploring new lands.
专注于突袭劫掠和探索开拓新地盘
Following this livelihood inevitably leads you to weird places,
这种生活方式难免会使你身处一些奇怪的境地
and as such Vikings raided and explored lands from the Middle East to Africa, to North America
因此这些维京人突袭和探索了 中东 非洲 北美
and were the first Europeans to do so.
是第一批干此勾当的欧洲人
Many believe the Viking Age started with the reign of Lindisfarne in England,
大众普遍认为维京时代始于英国林迪斯法恩王朝统治时期
and 792 Vikings raided a Christian monastery here.
维京人于792年袭击了当地的一所基督教修道院
Starting off a long line of raids throughout Europe and beyond.
开启了对欧洲及周边的一系列侵袭活动
Vikings had already raided locations
尽管维京人已经袭击了一些地方
but this particular event really kick-started the identity, Vikings were built up.
但这个特定事件才是维京人真正确立身份的开端
Christians had quite a bit of animosity towards these polytheistic pagan
基督徒对这些多神论的异教徒们颇有敌意
and raiding a monastery didn’t help.
但是袭击一个修道院对此于事无补
Viking history effectively does become a series of raids and explorers for the next few hundred years.
接下来几百年里的北欧海盗开始了一系列的掠夺和开拓
And considering just how widespread these people traveled,
考虑到他们足迹遍布之广
it isn’t too surprising in the end, the culture fizzled away.
文化的最终消亡也就不足为奇了
The exact cause for Vikings travelling the globe can’t really be pinpointed.
维京人周游世界的确切原因还无法定论
Some argue it was to escape forced conversion to Christianity by travelling
有人说是为了躲避被强制皈依基督教
which would align rather nicely with the advent of the Viking Age
这也与维京时代的到来相吻合
This would be a large part of Saxon wars, affecting Germanic peoples
这是撒克逊战争的一个重要组成部分 对日耳曼人影响深远
At the same time, some argue that since Vikings gave their first sons all acquired land,
同时 有些人认为 维京人惯于将他们征战所得的领地都给长子
younger sons ventured off to gain their own property.
其余的孩子则需要铤而走险来获取自己的财产
Of course a multitude of reasons could exist.
当然 各种原因不胜枚举
Maybe it was just a byproduct of consolidating,
也许它只是民族融合的副产品
we won’t know for sure, considering the lack of authentic evidence.
由于缺乏真实证据 我们还无法确切知道
The long ships represented as the choice vessel for the Vikings
这款长长的船是维京人专用船舰
It’s pretty accurate, albeit a bit less ornate
这种技术很精确 尽管不那么华丽
They were the pinnacle of ships at the time and contributed to the Vikings vast expansion.
是当时造船技术的巅峰 也为维京人的大规模扩张做出了贡献
They did cross the Atlantic hundreds of years before other Europeans
他们的确比其他欧洲人早数百年穿越大西洋
The combination of oars and sails made the ships remarkably versatile
船桨和风帆的结合使这些船集多种功能于一身
and open sea or ocean the sails were to be used exclusively
船帆专门用于在开阔的海面或洋面上航行
and orders would be used near coastal areas or just for boosting speed one
而船桨则会在靠近海岸时使用 或仅供加速
one of their best features was the identical front and rear sides
这种船只的最优点之一是前后两端相同
in icy areas which Vikings did tend to traveling
在维京人最常航行的冰川地区
the ship could go backwards very quickly by simply rowing in the other direction
只需向反方向轻轻一划 船只就能迅速后退
notable achievements of Viking exploration include the discovery of Greenland
维京人探险的显著成就 包括格陵兰岛的发现
some give credit to Erik the red for this an exile convicted of manslaughter
有人把这归功于“红发埃里克”这个被判杀人罪的流亡者
whether he actually discovered the island is doubted Nords had very likely been to Greenland
他是否真的发现了该岛值得怀疑
因为诺德人很可能早已去过格陵兰
but without permit settlements it’s impossible to know if they actually had made it there.
但没有定居点 他们是否真的到达了那里无从知晓
Erik’s son Leif Ericson would gain further fame with being credited as the first European to reach North America
埃里克的儿子Leif Erickson名气更大 被认为是第一个到达北美的欧洲人
landing in modern Newfoundland he created a settlement called Finland
他登陆现在的纽芬兰后 建立了一个定居点 取名芬兰
which would be the first Europeans would create
这是第一批欧洲人所创建的定居点
not all was going well for the Vikings however
然而 对维京人来说 并非一切顺利
over time the Vikings began to lose a decent amount of ground
随着时间的推移 他们开始丧失大量地盘或皈依基督教
or fall to Christian conversion. Rollo a Viking chief was granted the crown in ruled Normandy and 911
罗伦 一名维京人首领 于911年被授予王位统治诺曼底公国
at promising the French king he would convert to Christianity
他向法国国王许诺会改信基督教
and keep other Vikings out
并且驱逐其他维京人
slowly the Vikings culture and religion began to fade out of existence
慢慢地 维京人的文化和宗教开始消失
they lost land and many converted to Christianity
他们失去了土地 并有许多人转信基督教
this conformity more or less was what effectively ended the Viking Age
或多或少 这种一致性实质上终结了维京时代
but many regard one final event as the ultimate conclusion
但人们将一个终结事件视为最终结论
oral toxic Godwinson was exiled from England after a rebellion
厄尔·托斯提戈·葛温森在一次叛乱后被逐出了英国
following a rather poor attempt at ruling Northumbria
接着试图统治洛森布里亚未遂
his resentment led him to contact the King of Norway
怨恨驱使他联络了挪威国王哈罗德·哈德拉德
Harald Hardrada and convinced him to march into England
并说服其进军英格兰
so with us in 1066 king Hardrada and Earl Godwin s’en
于是1066年 哈德拉德国王联合厄尔·葛温森
went to war with the King of England Harold Godwinson
与英格兰国王哈罗德·葛温森开战了
taught SIG’s brother hard Radha and toxicated were both killed an already
托斯提戈的哥哥哈罗德和托斯提戈本人都被杀死
already weakened Viking culture had finally reached its end around
业已衰落的维京文化终于走到了尽头
around this time the beliefs and culture of the Vikings and Nords had slowly
大约这时 维京人和诺德人的信仰和文化
slowly began disappearing with Christianity taking prominence this
已经随着基督教的兴起而逐渐消失
this was a slow process with
这是个缓慢的过程
with a taking nearly two centuries after the fall of the Vikings for Christianity to be nearly universal throughout
在维京人灭亡后将近两个世纪
throughout Scandinavia I wish more could be said about the Vikings but in all honesty moving
基督教才得以在斯堪的纳维亚半岛普及
我希望人们能对维京人有更多的记载
moving too far outside battles and raids leads
但说实话 他们战争和掠袭的足迹特别广
leads to a deep amount of uncertainty
导致了历史记载的极大不确定性
those the Vikings raided documented Vikings far more than they did themselves
那些遭维京人袭击的人所记录的档案远远多于维京人自己所记
along with Christians who had quite a bit of bias considering the Vikings paganism
这些记录明显带着视维京人为异教徒的偏见
the popular Norse Sagas detailing their culture in history
广为流传的北欧传奇 详细描述其在历史上的文化
created after the Viking Age had ended complicating
创作于维京时代结束后
complicating the legitimacy of some stories
使一些故事的真实性更为扑朔迷离
as for Norse mythology I would love to detail it
我很乐意详细介绍一下北欧神话
but I feel it deserves a full video of its own some other day the Viking
但又觉得它值得改天用一个完整的视频来专门介绍
the Viking legacy is a strange one so little authentic history was preserved from such a widespread culture
维京人的遗产异乎寻常 他们的文化传播广泛 但真实史料稀缺
Norse culture had somewhat influenced Western civilization Thursday
古北欧文化在一定程度上影响了西方文明
Thursday is after all named after Thor’s day
毕竟 “周四”就是以雷神之名取的
even though the Viking Age came to an end
尽管维京时代早已终结
still pretty hard to forget about those pesky nerds
但我们还是无法忘记那些讨厌的北欧人
this is Cody of knowledge hub
我是来自《知识集线器》科迪

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视频概述

他们曾以掠夺、杀戮横扫陆地和海洋,因野蛮、凶残令欧洲人恨之入骨。维京人是谁?他们做了什么?维京时代如何结束的?打开视频看答案。

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视频来源

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