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美国饮酒年龄限制变更年鉴 – 译学馆
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美国饮酒年龄限制变更年鉴

Why the US drinking age is 21

Michael, welcome to the White House.
迈克尔 欢迎来到白宫
This is the 40th president of the United States,
这位是美国第四十任总统
Ronald Wilson Reagan,
罗纳德·威尔逊·里根
and Michael Joseph Jackson.
和迈克尔·约瑟夫·杰克逊
1984 Michael Jackson.
1984年的迈克尔·杰克逊
For Michael Jackson brings a thrill a minute to his millions of fan.
迈克尔·杰克逊 给他的数百万粉丝带来了激动人心的一刻
We have quite a few young folks in the White House
在白宫 有相当多的年轻人
who all wanted me to give you the same message
想要我带个口信给迈克尔
they said to tell Michael,
他们要告诉迈克尔
“please give some TLC to the PYTs.”
请给漂亮的小东西们一些温柔和体贴
So this is not just a footnote in history.
这不仅仅是一个历史印记
It actually connects, in a weird way, to the reason that you have to be 21 in every state
实际上 这还与美国各州规定年满21岁才能买酒的原因
in the United States to buy alcohol.
有着奇怪的联系
I’ll show you.
我来告诉你原因!
States determine their own minimum legal drinking ages, and in 1975,
1975年 美国每州都规定了本地区最低法定饮酒年龄
they looked like this.
大致情况如下
All these blue states are at 18.
这些涂成蓝色的州为18岁
All these green ones are 19.
绿色的州规定为19岁
Delaware’s yellow, alone at 20.
只有黄色的特拉华州需要达到20岁
These orange ones are 21,
这些橘色的地区需要达到21岁
but with allowances for lower alcohol levels
但是对于像啤酒和红酒这些酒精含量低的酒
in stuff like beer and wine.
年龄限制相对宽松
And these red ones are the 21 and older states.
这些红色地区要达到21岁 或更高的年龄
It’s a complicated map.
这是一张复杂的地图
Now look at the map today.
让我们来看看现在的情况
It’s all 21
限制一致被拉向21岁
How did that change happen?
是什么导致了这种变化?
This story takes you to a political crossroads, and the Supreme Court,
事件将带你回到政治面临重要关头和最高法院
and in a weird way, to Michael Jackson shaking hands next to the president, while dressed like this.
从迈克尔·杰克逊穿着奇异和总统握手说起
But the drinking age change is ultimately a story…about roads.
归根结底 饮酒年龄的改变与一个公路事件有关
Prohibition, the 18th amendment to the US Constitution, banned alcohol in 1920.
美国宪法第十八条修正法案 于1920年全面禁酒
It was repealed by the 21st amendment,
1933年 第21条修正案废除了该法案
and after that, a lot of states settled on a drinking age of 21 and older.
此后 许多州规定年满21岁才可以饮酒
See the red here, in the late 60s?
看到这些红色的部分了吗?在六十年代末
Those are all 21 and older states.
这些州规定年满21周岁才能饮酒
In the 70s, the 26th amendment changed the dynamic again.
到70年代 第26条修正案再一次改变了局面
That amendment, as you know,
如你所知 那条法案
provides for the right to vote of all of our young people between 18 and 21,
使我们所有18到21周岁的青年有了投票权
11 million new voters as a result of this amendment.
这条法案使选民人数新增了1100万
18 year olds could be drafted to Vietnam and vote,
因为年满18岁就可被派往越南或参与选举
so a lot of states decided they could drink.
所以很多州的允许这个年龄段的人饮酒
That map was short lived for one reason.
一个原因使这样的分布情况很快就结束了
And here comes the President.
总统来了
Nearly 50,000 people were killed on our highways last year.
去年 约5万人命丧高速公路
Now out of that statistic comes an even more chilling one.
现在 更加令人不寒而栗的统计数据是
Drunk drivers were involved in 25,000 of those fatalities,
其中有两万五千余人死于酒驾
in addition to 750,000 injuries a year.
此外 每年有75万人因此受伤
Drinking age reform advocates
饮酒年龄改革的提倡者
quickly attributed drunk driving fatalities
迅速将醉驾致死归因于
in the blue states or 18 and older states,
蓝色的和其他18岁及以上合法饮酒的州
to earlier drinking ages.
较早的饮酒年龄
People argued that teens driving across state lines to drink or purchase alcohol
还认为 驾车跨州去喝酒或买酒的青少年
increased drunk driving.
增加了酒驾次数
This 1983 map was still a hodgepodge,
1983年的地图版面还是一团糟
but see how more states turned green for 19
但可以看到更多的州变成饮酒年龄为19岁的绿色区域
and yellow for 20 years old?
和饮酒年龄为20岁的黄色区域
That was driven partly by an awareness campaign.
这些地区的转变是由宣传活动促成的
Thank you very much, Mr. President.
非常感谢您 总统先生
Michael Jackson
迈克尔·杰克逊
He was being honored for letting his music be used in anti-drunk driving PSAs.
对自己的音乐用于反酒驾公益广告感到荣幸
You’re as good as dead.
你死定了
But tactics weren’t limited to PR.
但对此的策略并不仅限于公关方面
President Reagan is famous for saying:
总统里根有句名言
The nine most terrifying words in the English language are
在英语中最可怕的9个词就是
I’m from the government and I’m here to help.
政府派我来帮助大家
That made his strategy kind of surprising.
这让他的策略变得有些出人意料
For even though drunk driving is a problem nation-wide,
虽然酒驾是个全国普遍的问题
it can only be solved at the state and local level.
但解决这个问题只能从各州当地具体情况出发
Yet the Federal Government also has a role to play.
尽管这样 联邦政府也可以发挥作用
His thinking was influenced by two main groups.
他的想法主要受两个组织的影响
Much of the credit for focusing public attention goes to the grassroots campaign of organizations
公众关注的焦点主要集中在两个组织的基层运动上
like MADD, Mothers Against Drunk Drivers,
比如反对酒驾母亲联合会 简称MADD
and RID, Remove Intoxicated Drivers.
以及开除酒驾司机组织 简称RID
Candace “Candy” Lightner founded MADD in 1980
坎迪斯 也就是坎迪•莱特纳 于1980年创立MADD
after her daughter Cari was killed by a drunk driver.
此前 她女儿卡里被酒驾司机夺走了生命
MADD’s goals at the time included making it easier to obtain DUI convictions,
MADD当时的目标包括简化酒驾定罪
and raising the drinking age.
提高法定饮酒年龄
This direction was clear
这样的发展方向
at River Dell High School in Oradell, New Jersey,
在新泽西州奥拉德的戴尔河中学非常明确
where President Reagan explained his unpredictable political evolution.
里根总统在那儿解释了他出人意料的政治演变
The problem:
问题是:
“I appointed a Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving.
“我任命了总统委员会调查酒驾
They told us that
他们告诉我们
alcohol related automobile accidents
与酒精有关的汽车事故
are the leading cause of teenage deaths in this country.”
是我国青少年死亡的主要原因”
The theory:
理论依据是:
“In states in which the drinking age has been raised,
在饮酒年龄已经提高的州
teenage drinking fatalities have gone down significantly.
青少年饮酒致死率显著下降
Here in New Jersey, you raised the drinking age to 21 in 1983,
1983年 在新泽西州将饮酒年龄提高到21岁后
and you know what happened,
你们知道发生了什么吗?
you had a 26 % reduction in night time single vehicle fatalities
仅第一年 在19至20岁的年轻人中
among 19 and 20 year olds in the first year alone.
夜间单车事故死亡率降低了26%
The dilemma:
遇到的难题是:
“I was delighted again because I hoped that the states would, as they should,
“我感到很高兴 因为就像我本希望的那样
take this action themselves without federal orders or interference.”
各州能在没有联邦命令和干涉的情况下自行采取行动”
“It’s led to a kind of crazy quilt of different state drinking laws,
这使各州林林总总出台了各种饮酒法
and that’s led to what’s been called blood borders,
这也使州界被人们称为 血腥边界
with teenagers leaving their home to go the nearest state with a lower drinking age.”
因为青少年可以到离家最近的饮酒年龄较低的州”
And here? This is where the roads come in.
此时 公路就发挥了它的作用
The Interstate Highway Act of 1956
1956年出台的州际高速路法案
created a network of roads largely funded by Federal dollars.
使得联邦政府投入了大量资金建设交通网络
Those roads quickly became crucial to state economies.
很快 这些道路对国家经济变得至关重要
That money also became a way to bend the states to Federal priorities,
即使这意味着里根不得不改变其原有的政治立场
even if it meant Reagan had to change his typical political positions.
这笔钱也使各州对联邦政府言听计从
“I’ve decided to support legislation
“我支持立法
to withhold 5% of a state’s highway funds
如果某州未制定21岁的饮酒年龄
if it does not enact the 21-year-old drinking age.
则扣留该州5%的高速公路资金
Some may feel that my decision is at odds with my philosophical viewpoint
有人可能会认为我的决定与我的哲学观点相悖
that state problems should involve state solutions,
即各州问题应由各州自行解决
and it isn’t up to a big and overwhelming government in Washington
而不应该由华盛顿这样一个强势的政府
to tell the states what to do.
来告诉各州怎么做
And you’re partly right.
这一定程度上是正确的
Beyond that, there are some special cases
除此之外 在某些特殊情况下
in which overwhelming need can be dealt with by prudent and limited federal action.”
可以通过审慎而有限的联邦行动来解决当务之急”
The law passed.
法案通过了
That’s Candy Lightner, celebrating.
这位是Candy Lightner 她正在庆祝
“I’d like to make you an honorary mother against drunk drivers”
我授予你为“反酒驾母亲联合会”名誉会员
It wasn’t technically a nationwide drinking age law,
严格依据法律来说 这不是一项全国性的饮酒年龄法
but in effect — it was.
但是实际上却已生效
“We have no misgiving about this judicious use of Federal power.”
“我们无需怀疑联邦权力的明断”
States quickly adopted the 21-year-old drinking age.
各州迅速采纳21岁的饮酒年龄的规定
Most couldn’t afford to lose federal funding for their highways.
因为大部分州不能承受失去联邦对它们公路建设的经济支持
Louisiana was the only state that held out at age 18
路易斯安那是唯一坚持以18岁为法定饮酒年龄的州
due to a loophole, which it closed in the mid 90s.
这一漏洞在90年代中期被修复了
South Dakota challenged the law
南达科他州对该法律提出质疑
to preserve sale of low alcohol beer for 19 year olds and up,
要求保留对19岁以上的销售低度啤酒
and it reached the Supreme Court.
然后这件事情传到了最高法院
“You may proceed whenever you’re ready.”
你们可以准备好后 再推行这条法律
“Mr. Chief Justice and may it please the court,
“首席大法官先生 请允许我
the issue in this case is
在此案中 问题在于
whether or not Congress
国会是否可以
may condition the receipt of highway funds upon a state having in effect
以施行21岁饮酒年龄的州为条件
21-year-old drinking age.”
收取公路资金”
The court ruled 7-2,
法院以7比2做出裁定
stating it was within Congress’s powers to control spending that promoted”general welfare”,
指出在国会的权力范围内控制促进“一般福利”的支出
argued as the reduction of youth drinking and driving via the 21-year-old drinking age.
认为是21岁的饮酒年龄减少了年轻人酒驾
Did it work?
确实是这样吗?
Most studies of studies declare “case closed”—
大多数学者断言 这个案件已经了结
that the higher drinking age saves lives,
因为提高饮酒年龄不仅挽救了生命
and”reduces alcohol consumption.”
还可以降低饮酒量
Skeptics, like people from the libertarian Cato Institute,
来自卡托研究所的自由主义者对此表示怀疑
claim a broader cultural change, not a law, should be credited with saving lives.
他们称 挽救生命应该靠广泛的文化变革而不是法律
Reagan himself kind of argued both sides, saying that,
里根认为双方观点都存在争议 说道
“the new minimum drinking age is working,”
新出台的最低饮酒年龄是可行的
but that “my friends,
然而 朋友们
there’s so much more to do, and it’s not government that can do it.”
还有很多事情要做 但是政府帮不上忙”
Politically, Ronald Reagan using Federal purse strings to strong arm states
政治上 罗纳尔·里根用联邦的钱武装各州
is…a strange pairing.
是……非常奇怪的
But beyond the politics, there’s a bigger message.
除了政治方面 还有一个重要的信息
The Federal government has used other levers to push states,
联邦政府利用了其他手段来推动各州发展
but to change the drinking age there was one big tool.
但改变饮酒年龄是一个重要手段
The thing that changed the country wasn’t just the lines on states’ edges.
改变国家的不仅仅是各州之间的界限
It was the ones that run through them.
还有贯穿其中的那些
Alright, that’s it for this road trip edition of Almanac.
好了 这是本年鉴的公路旅行版
I’m about to reveal what the theme for the next edition is gonna be,
接下来 我将告诉你下一个版本的主题
but first I want to read some comments from the last video
但是我要先去看一下上一个视频中
all about Route 66.
关于66号公路的评论
“People born in the 20th century: the reasons in this video.
“20世纪出生的人是视频中的主要原因”
-2000s kids: Ka-Chow!” -“Kachow!”
-2000年的孩子们:咔嚓! -咔嚓 !
So many cars comments.
太多关于汽车公司的评论了
“That warning at 1:00 is basically TLDR;
1点钟处的警告太长了 我没有看
hey tourists, wild donkeys kick.
嘿 旅行者 你被野驴踢了吧
Alright, that’s it for this edition of Almanac.
这就是本期年鉴的版本
In the next one,
下一次
I’m gonna be looking at the big ideas that completely changed movies
我要说的是彻底改变电影的大创意
— and had nothing to do with Hollywood.
但与好莱坞无关

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视频概述

这个视频将告诉大家美国法定饮酒年龄限制的变更史

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aWYJugVTs4

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