未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)

理查德.道金斯(Richard Dawkins)谈奇妙的宇宙

Why the universe seems so strange | Richard Dawkins

我所演讲的题目是:“超乎想象的奇妙:科学的奇异之处 ”
My title:”Queerer than we cansuppose: the strangeness of science.”
“超乎想象的的奇妙”这一概念来自于J.B.S.霍尔丹 他作为一个著名的生物学家
“Queerer than we can suppose” comesfrom J.B.S. Haldane, the famous biologist,
说过:“我现在察觉到
who said,” Now,
宇宙不仅仅比我们想象
my own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer
的更为奇妙 甚至比我们所能够想象的更为奇妙
than we suppose, but queererthan we can suppose.
我怀疑天地间有更多的东西
I suspect that there are more thingsin heaven and earth
是任何哲学观点都没有料想到过
than are dreamed of, or can be dreamed of,
甚至是能够料想到的 ”
in any philosophy.”
理查德.费曼曾经这样描述量子理论的精确性 —基于实验预测
Richard Feynman comparedthe accuracy of quantum theories —
—量子理论的精确性
experimental predictions —
就如同使用一根头发丝去
to specifying the width of North America to
厘定整个北美洲的宽度
within one hair’s breadth of accuracy.
这说明了量子理论只是一定程度
This means that quantum theory has got to be,
上的准确
in some sense, true.
然而量子理论为了实现这些预言所做出的假设
Yet the assumptionsthat quantum theory needs to make
看起来是如此的不可思议
in order to deliver thosepredictions are so mysterious
以至于费曼本人都不得不这样评论 “如果你认为
that even Feynman himselfwas moved to remark,
你理解量子理论了
“If you think you understandquantum theory,
那你就没有理解它 ”
you don’t understand quantum theory.”
物理学家们求诸于或这或那相悖的解释
It’s so queer that physicistsresort to one or another
是多么奇怪啊 大卫.多依奇
paradoxical interpretation of it.
在《真实世界的脉络》一书中
David Deutsch, who’s talking here,in”The Fabric of Reality,”
采纳了量子理论中对于“多重世界”的解释
embraces the many-worldsinterpretation of quantum theory,
因为你能够对“多重世界”理论最差的评价也只能是
because the worst that youcan say about it
毫无根据的废话而已
is that it’s preposterously wasteful.
它假设了存在着数目巨大并且在不断增加的平行宇宙
It postulates a vast and rapidly growing number
并且它们之间是
of universes existing in parallel,
无法互相探测的
mutually undetectable,
除非通过精妙的量子力学实验
except through the narrow portholeof quantum mechanical experiments.
这就是理查德.费曼
And that’s Richard Feynman.
生物学家 刘易斯.沃尔普特 认为现代物理学
The biologist Lewis Wolpert believes
的奇妙之处 只不过是一个极端的例子
that the queerness of modern physics is just an extreme example. Science,
相比于技术而言
as opposed to technology,
科学往往会对常识造成破坏
does violence to common sense.
他指出 每当你喝下一杯水的时候
Every time you drink a glassof water, he points out,
你就很可能喝到了至少一个分子
the odds are that you will imbibeat least one molecule
是当年曾经过克伦威尔膀胱的
that passed through the bladderof Oliver Cromwell.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这仅仅是最基础的概率论
It’s just elementary probability theory.
每杯水中
(Laughter)
的水分子数目远远超过
The number of moleculesper glassful is hugely greater
世界上所有杯子或膀胱的数量 当然
than the number of glassfuls,or bladdersful, in the world.
这里的克伦威尔或者膀胱并没有什么特别之处
And of course, there’s nothing specialabout Cromwell or bladders —
你刚才或许已经吸入了一个氮分子
you have just breathed in a nitrogen atom
曾经穿过那颗高大的铁树左边的
that passed through the right lungof the third iguanodon
第三只禽龙的右肺
to the left of the tall cycad tree.
“超乎想象的奇妙”
“Queerer than we can suppose.”
有没有什么能够使我们有能力想象到一切
What is it that makes uscapable of supposing anything,
并且能够告诉我们与这些能够想到的东西有关的一切的玩艺?
and does this tell us anythingabout what we can suppose?
宇宙中是否存在着某些东西永远
Are there things
超越我们的理解力 但是却又无法超越一些
about the universe that will be forever beyond our grasp,
高等智慧的玩艺呢?
but not beyond the graspof some superior intelligence?
是否还存在着 原则上不能被任何人
Are there things about the universe that are,
所理解的宇宙呢?
in principle, ungraspable by any mind,
不管多么高等的的智慧都无法理解
however superior?
科学史长期伴随着猛烈的头脑风暴
The history of science has been
背后是随着一代又一代人
one long series of violent brainstorms,
对不断增长的
as successive generationshave come to terms with
宇宙奇妙级别做出的妥协
increasing levels of queernessin the universe.
我们现在对于地球在自转
We’re now so used to the ideathat the Earth spins,
而不是太阳绕着地球转这一常识习以为常——以至于
rather than the Sun moves across the sky,
我们很难想象 这曾是一次多么
it’s hard for us to realize what
重大的思想革命
a shattering mental revolution that must have been.
毕竟 地球显然看起来是大
After all, it seems obvious
而且静止的
that the Earth is large and motionless,
太阳却是小而且移动着的
the Sun, small and mobile.
但是 这值得我们回忆起 维特根斯坦对于此事的看法
But it’s worth recallingWittgenstein’s remark on the subject:
“告诉我 ”他问一个朋友 “为什么人们总是会自然而然地认为
“Tell me,” he asked a friend,”why do people always say
太阳是在
it was natural for man to assume
绕着地球转
that the Sun went’round the Earth,
而不是地球自己在自转呢?”
rather than that the Earth was rotating?”
他的朋友回答道:”很显然
And his friend replied,”Well, obviously,
因为身边的一切看起来更像是 太阳在绕着地球转 ”
because it just looks as though the Sun is going round the Earth.

维特根斯坦反问道 “难道说如果地球是自转的话
Wittgenstein replied,”Well,what would it have looked like
身边的一切看上去就会不同了吗?”
if it had looked as thoughthe Earth was rotating?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
科学告诉我们 要抵制直觉
Science has taught us,against all intuition,
那些看起来显然是固体的东西 例如水晶和岩石
that apparently solid things,like crystals and rocks,
其实是充满了虚无的空间
are really almost entirelycomposed of empty space.
我们熟悉例子是:原子核对于一个原子而言就相当于一只苍蝇
And the familiar illustrationis the nucleus of an atom
在一个体育场的中间 并且另一个原子核位于
is a fly in the middleof a sports stadium,
另一个体育场当中因此
and the next atomis in the next sports stadium.
看起来最坚硬、最坚固、最致密的岩石其实
So it would seem the hardest,solidest, densest rock
也是完全空洞的 这空洞被微小的
is really almost entirely empty space,
粒子分开 而这些粒子又如此分散地遍布在这广大的空间内 以至于可以被忽略
broken only by tiny particlesso widely spaced they shouldn’t count. Why,
为什么岩石看上去 摸上去是固质、坚硬而又无法穿透的呢?
then, do rocks look and feel solid and hard and impenetrable?
作为一名进化生物学家 我会这样解释:“我们的大脑不断进化
As an evolutionary biologist,I’d say this: our brains have evolved
以帮助我们在所处的这个数量级的尺寸和速度
to help us survive within the orders
的环境中生存下来 ”
of magnitude, of size and speed
我们从不会在
which our bodies operate at.
原子级别的世界中进化
We never evolved to navigatein the world of atoms.
假如那样的话 我们的大脑很有可能会感觉到岩石是空洞的
If we had, our brainsprobably would perceive rocks
岩石在我们的手中感觉
as full of empty space.
是坚硬且不可穿透的
Rocks feel hard and impenetrable
是因为岩石和手这类物体
to our hands, precisely becauseobjects like rocks and hands
并不能互相穿透
cannot penetrate each other.
因此这对于我们的大脑而言
It’s therefore useful
将此类概念定义为“固体”和“不可穿透”是有用的
for our brains to construct notionslike”solidity” and”impenetrability,”
因为此类概念可以帮助我们在这种中等尺寸的世界中
because such notions help usto navigate our bodies
操纵我们的身体 并且我们不得不这样做
through the middle-sized worldin which we have to navigate.
再谈一谈尺度的另一端
Moving to the other end of the scale,
我们的祖先从来不需要在一个接近光速的宇宙
our ancestors never had to navigate through the cosmos
中操纵自己的身体 如果它们那样做了
at speeds close to the speed of light.
我们的大脑将会比现在更好地理解爱因斯坦 我想把我们进化出
If they had, our brains would be much better at understanding Einstein.
生存能力的这个中等规模的环境 命名为中观世界
I want to give the name”Middle World”to the medium-scaled environment
和中土世界(《魔戒》发生地)没有关系哦
in which we’ve evolvedthe ability to take act —
中观世界
nothing to do with”Middle Earth” —
(笑声)
Middle World.
我们
(Laughter)
是在中观世界中得到进化的居民
We are evolved denizens of Middle World,
这限制了我们 所能够想象到的东西 我们在直觉上很容易明白这样的事实:
and that limits whatwe are capable of imagining.
当一只兔子以中等的速率在
We find it intuitively easyto grasp ideas like,
移动的时候 (这种速率是兔子和
when a rabbit movesat the sort of medium velocity
其他中观世界中物体移动的速度)
at which rabbits and otherMiddle World objects move,
撞上了另一个中观世界中的物体 比如说一块岩石 然后兔子就晕了
and hits another Middle World object like a rock, it knocks itself out.
请让我介绍一下陆军少将Albert Stubblebine三世
May I introduce Major GeneralAlbert Stubblebine III,
他曾是美国军情部门的指挥官
commander of militaryintelligence in 1983.
1983年 当他盯着位于弗吉尼亚阿灵顿的办公室内的一堵墙的时候
“…[He] stared at his wall in Arlington,Virginia, and decided to do it.
他做出了一个令人惊讶的决定 他试图穿墙进入挨着的办公室
As frightening as the prospect was, he was going into the next office.
他先是站了起来 然后从他背后的桌子处动身
He stood up and movedout from behind his desk.
他心里想:“原子到底是由啥构成的?应该是空间吧 ”
‘What is the atom mostly made of?’he thought,’Space.’
他开始朝着墙走去 “我到底是什么构成的呢?应该是原子吧 ”
He started walking.’What am Imostly made of? Atoms.’
他加快了自己的步伐 几乎像是在慢跑
He quickened his pace,almost to a jog now.
“墙又是什么构成的呢?
‘What is the wall mostly made of?’
应该还是原子
(Laughter)
我要做的一切就是让自己融进原子里的空间 ”
‘Atoms!’ All I have to do is merge the spaces. Then,
接着 少将的鼻子猛的撞到了他办公室里的那堵墙上 这位指挥16000
General Stubblebine banged his nose hard on the wall of his office. Stubblebine,
名士兵的将军
who commanded16,000 soldiers,
被接二连三的穿墙失败搞得狼狈不堪
was confounded by his continual failureto walk through the wall.
他丝毫不怀疑
He has no doubt
终究有一天这种能力会成为
that this ability will one day be a common tool
军队中的常规武器 那样的话谁还会招惹一支拥有
in the military arsenal.
此种能力的军队呢? 这个故事来是我前
Who would screw around with an armythat could do that?”
几天
That’s from an article in Playboy,
在看《花花公子》时读到的
which I was reading the other day.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我有很多理由认为这是真实的 我读《花花公子》是因为
I have every reason to think it’s true;
我本人在上面
I was reading Playboy because I, myself, had an article in it.
登了文章哦 (笑声)
(Laughter)
在中观世界中得以调教的人类直觉 在没有受到协助的情况下
Unaided human intuition,schooled in Middle World,
会很难相信当年伽利略告诉我们
finds it hard to believe Galileowhen he tells us
一个重物和一个轻物在不考虑空气阻力的情况下
a heavy object and a light object,air friction aside,
会同时落到地面这一事实
would hit the ground at the same instant.
这是因为在中观世界里 空气阻力总是存在的 但假设我们是
And that’s because in Middle World,air friction is always there.
在真空的环境中进化的话 我们可以预料
If we’d evolved in a vacuum,
到它们会同时落地
we would expect them to hit the ground simultaneously.
如果我们是细菌的话 是会持续不断地受到分子间的热作用的冲击的 那将会和我们现在的情况大不相同
If we were bacteria, constantly buffeted by thermalmovements of molecules,
但是
it would be different.
中观世界的规模对于布朗运动而言太大了同样的
But we Middle-Worlders are too bigto notice Brownian motion.
我们生命体以地心引力作用为主导
In the same way, our livesare dominated by gravity,
以至于表面张力可以被忽略
but are almost obliviousto the force of surface tension.
而一个小虫子对于上述两种力的感知肯定是相反的
A small insect would reversethese priorities.
史蒂夫.格兰德在图中的左侧
Steve Grand — he’s the one on the left,
道格拉斯.亚当斯在右侧
Douglas Adams is on the right.
斯蒂夫.格兰德在他 名为《万物:生命及如何制造生命》一书中
Steve Grand, in his book,”Creation: Life and How to Make It,”
强烈地抨击了 我们对日常生活中对于物质这一概念的偏见
is positively scathing about ourpreoccupation with matter itself.
我们倾向于认为只有固体的、具体的东西才是
We have this tendency to thinkthat only solid, material things
真正的东西
are really things at all.
而真空中的电磁波
Waves of electromagnetic fluctuationin a vacuum seem unreal.
是不真实的维多利亚时代的人们认为波只能在以物质作为介质
Victorians thought the waves had to be waves
的环境下存在
in some material medium:
我们管这种
the ether.
介质叫以太 但是真实的物质能够让我们宽慰
But we find real matter comforting
是因为在我们生存的中观世界中
only because we’ve evolvedto survive in Middle World,
物质是一个有用的虚构概念
where matter is a useful fiction.
对于史蒂夫.格兰德而言
A whirlpool, for Steve Grand,
一个漩涡的真实性和
is a thing with just as much reality
一块岩石差不多
as a rock.
在坦桑尼亚的沙漠平原上
In a desert plain in Tanzania,
有一个由火山灰形成的沙丘
in the shadow of the volcanoOl Doinyo Lengai,
位于伦盖火山的阴影下
there’s a dune made of volcanic ash.
它是一个美妙的流动沙丘
The beautiful thingis that it moves bodily.
这在地理学上被称为新月形沙丘
It’s what’s technically knownas a”barchan,”
它整体上 大约以每年17
and the entire dune walks across the desert
米的速度
in a westerly direction
向沙漠的西面移动
at a speed of about 17 meters per year.
这个沙丘在向月牙角方向移动的同时一直能够保持新月形
It retains its crescent shape and moves in the direction of the horns.
风先是将沙子
What happens is
从坡度较缓的方向吹
that the wind blows the sand up the shallow slope
向另一侧
on the other side,
沙子会不断机打沙丘脊的顶部 然后沙子会从沙丘脊部
and then, as each sand grain hits the top
连续不断地落入月牙型的沙丘内部
of the ridge, it cascades down
并且整个号角状的沙丘会随之移动
on the inside of the crescent, and so the whole horn-shaped dune moves.
斯蒂夫.格兰德指出我们大家都
Steve Grand points outthat you and I are, ourselves,
更像是处于变化中的波而不是一件永恒的物品
more like a wave than a permanent thing.
他邀请读者
He invites us, the reader,
们去回忆 “童年经历中能够清楚
to think of an experience from your childhood,
的记得的一些能够 看到、
something you remember clearly, something you can see, feel,
感觉到甚至是闻到的东西
maybe even smell,
让自己仿佛身如其境 ”
as if you were really there.
然后你会发现自己真的好像在那里 是吧? 否则
After all, you really were thereat the time, weren’t you?
你又如何会记着这些东西呢?
How else would you remember it?
但令人惊奇的是 你根本没有到过那里
But here is the bombshell:You weren’t there.
在这一切发生的时候 你身上一个分子都没有到过那
Not a single atomthat is in your body today
物质从四面八方
was there when that event took place.
汇聚过来
Matter flows from place to place
并且暂时地形成了你
and momentarily comes together to be you.
不管你是什么 你都不是那个
Whatever you are, therefore,
由你身上的物质组成的家伙
you are not the stuff of which you are made.
如果这没有让你颈后的汗毛竖起来的话
If that doesn’t make the hair stand up
那就继续读下去
on the back of your neck,
直到你颈后的汗毛竖起来为止 因为这很重要
read it again until it does,because it is important.
“因此 “真实“并不是一个我们在没有足够信心的情况下就能随意使用的单词
So”really” isn’t a word that we shoulduse with simple confidence.
如果中微子拥有大脑
If a neutrino had a brain,
并且是从中微子级别的祖先中进化而来的
which it evolvedin neutrino-sized ancestors,
那么中微子就会说岩石当然是由空洞组成的
it would say that rocks reallydo consist of empty space.
我们的大脑是在中等级别的祖先中进化的
We have brains that evolvedin medium-sized ancestors
所以我们无法穿透岩石
which couldn’t walk through rocks.
对于动物而言 “真实”只不过是大脑为了更好地
“Really,” for an animal, is whateverits brain needs it to be
协助其生存的概念
in order to assist its survival.
并且不同的物种生活在不同的世界当中正因此
And because different specieslive in different worlds,
世上存在着各式让人感到疑惑不快的真实
there will be a discomfortingvariety of”reallys.”
我们所见到的真实世界
What we see
并不是一个没有被修饰过的世界
of the real world is not the unvarnished world,
而是一个被我们的感官数据所控制
but a model of the world,

regulated and adjusted by sense data,
调谐的模型但是这个模型被建构是为了让我们更好地处理与真实世界之间的关系
but constructed so it’s usefulfor dealing with the real world.
这个模型的特性取决于我们是何种动物
The nature of the model depends on the kind of animal we are.
会飞的动物需要一个与行走、攀爬或游泳的动物
A flying animal needsa different kind of model
完全不同的模型
from a walking, climbingor swimming animal.
猴子的大脑必须拥有一套软件使其能够模拟
A monkey’s brain must havesoftware capable of simulating
枝条与树干的三维世界
a three-dimensional worldof branches and trunks.
鼹鼠也需要一套能够建构模型的软件
A mole’s software for constructing models
这套软件将专门
of its world will be customized
为地下世界定做
for underground use.
水黾的大脑则完全不需要三维软件 因为它们生活
A water strider’s braindoesn’t need 3D software at all,
在埃德温.阿伯特笔下平面世界中
since it lives on the surface of the pond,
池塘的表面
in an Edwin Abbott flatland.
我推测蝙蝠也许可以通过耳朵识别色彩
I’ve speculated that bats may seecolor with their ears.
蝙蝠所需的世界模型是为了
The world model that a bat needsin order to navigate
在三维世界中穿梭捕食 这个模型一定
through three dimensions catching insects
与其他任何飞鸟的模型是相似的
must be pretty similar to the world model
例如像燕子
that any flying bird —
这种在日间飞行的鸟类
a day-flying bird like a swallow —
需要执行同样的任务
needs to perform the same kind of tasks.
蝙蝠在漆黑的环境中通过使用回声来
The fact that the bat usesechoes in pitch darkness
输入变量的模型这一事实
to input the currentvariables to its model,
对于燕子而言 所使用的就是光线 两者是随机产生的
while the swallow useslight, is incidental. Bats,
我甚至猜测蝙蝠使用察觉到的色调 如红色和蓝色
I’ve even suggested, use perceived hues,
作为标签
such as red and blue,
来对回声中一些有用的方面进行标注
as labels, internal labels,for some useful aspect of echoes —
例如表面的声学质地是平滑的还是
perhaps the acoustic texture of surfaces,
粗糙的等等
furry or smooth and so on —
同样的 燕子及我们人类使用
in the same way as swallows or indeed, we,
红色、
use those perceived hues —
蓝色等察觉出的色调
redness and blueness, etc.
来对光线波长的长短进行标识 红色与其波长
— to label long and shortwavelengths of light.
较长这一属性之间并没有什么固有的联系
There’s nothing inherent about redthat makes it long wavelength.
关键点是这个模型的特征是由它如何被使用决定的
The point is that the nature of the model is governed
而不是被其
by how it is to be used,
感官特性决定的
rather than by the sensorymodality involved. J.B.S.
J.B.S.霍尔丹自己就曾经说过动物的世界
Haldane himself hadsomething to say about animals
是被气味支配的
whose world is dominated by smell.
狗可以区分两种非常相似并且被高度稀释的脂肪酸:
Dogs can distinguish two very similarfatty acids, extremely diluted:
羊油酸(辛酸)和羊脂酸(己酸)
caprylic acid and caproic acid.
它们唯一的区别在于它们
The only difference, you see,
其中一个的化学链上 多了一对碳原子而已
is that one has an extra pair of carbon atoms in the chain.
霍尔丹猜测狗狗能够
Haldane guesses that a dog would
根据嗅觉将两种酸的
probably be able to place the acids
分子量进行排序
in the order of their molecularweights by their smells,
就好像人可以根据音符将钢琴线的长度
just as a man could placea number of piano wires
进行排序现在
in the order of their lengthsby means of their notes. Now,
还有另一种脂肪酸叫做羊蜡酸(发酸)
there’s anotherfatty acid, capric acid,
与前面提到的两者非常相似
which is just like the other two,
它只不过又多了两个碳原子而已
except that it has two more carbon atoms.
一条从没有问过羊蜡酸的小狗 很有可能
A dog that had never metcapric acid would, perhaps,
轻而易举的识别出它的味道就如同我们
have no more trouble imagining its smell
就算我们从来没有
than we would have troubleimagining a trumpet, say,
听过小号的声音 也可以轻而易举地识别出小号所发出更高一个音符的声音
playing one note higher than we’ve hearda trumpet play before.
或许像狗狗、犀牛及其他一些以嗅觉为导向的动物可以通过 气味来识别颜色
Perhaps dogs and rhinos and othersmell-oriented animals smell in color.
理由就和刚才提到的 蝙蝠的例子一样
And the argument would be exactly the same as for the bats.
中观世界中有关大小和速度的范围
Middle World — the rangeof sizes and speeds
在我们的进化过程中都会让人在直觉上感到是舒适的
which we have evolved to feelintuitively comfortable with —
这有点像是我们在肉眼能够观察到的各种颜色
is a bit like the narrow rangeof the electromagnetic spectrum
都属于电磁频谱中的一段小范围之内
that we see as light of various colors.
除非我们借助仪器
We’re blind to allfrequencies outside that,
否则我们无法观察到那范围之外的颜色
unless we use instruments to help us.
中观世界同样也只是现实中窄小的一部分
Middle World is the narrowrange of reality
在这部分世界中 这样我们对它的感知和判断才是正常的 对于超出这部分的世界
which we judge to be normal,as opposed to the queerness
我们会认为是太小、太大、
of the very small, the very largeand the very fast.
或是太快的我们可以对不可能的事物也作出一个类似的界定
We could make a similarscale of improbabilities;
没有什么是完全不可能的
nothing is totally impossible.
奇迹只不过是极其不容易发生的事而已
Miracles are just eventsthat are extremely improbable.
一座大理石雕像可能会朝我们挥手 它们构成晶状
A marble statue could wave its hand at us;
结构的原子 总一直在来来回回的振动
the atoms that make upits crystalline structure
但因为
are all vibrating back and forth anyway.
这些原子的数量太多了
Because there are so many of them,
并且它们之间并没有
and because there’s no agreement among them
在运动方向达成什么默契
in their preferred direction of movement,
所以雕像在中观世界中看起来是静止稳定的
the marble, as we see it in Middle World, stays rock steady.
但是如果这些
But the atoms
原子刚好在
in the hand could all just happen to move
同一时间往同样的方向不停的移动
the same way at the same time,and again and again.
我们就可以看见手向我们挥动
In this case, the hand would move,
但是 在中观世界中
and we’d see it waving at us in Middle World.
概率遏制了这种情况的发生
The odds against it,of course, are so great
以至于如果你从宇宙诞生之时
that if you set out writing zeros at the time
开始写0直到今天
of the origin of the universe,
或许你都还没写够
you still would not have writtenenough zeros to this day.
在中观世界
Evolution in Middle Worldhas not equipped us
中的进化并不会让我们练就一手 处理小概率事件的本领 因为我们不会活的太长
to handle very improbable events;we don’t live long enough.
在广阔无垠的宇宙空间与漫长的地质年代中
In the vastness of astronomical spaceand geological time,
那些在中观世界中看似不可能的事件
that which seems impossiblein Middle World
或许就会成为一种必然
might turn out to be inevitable.
统计行星的数量或许有助于我们理解这一点
One way to think about thatis by counting planets.
我们不知道宇宙中到底有多少行星 但是目前比较
We don’t know how many planetsthere are in the universe,
理想的估计大约是2000亿亿或10000亿
but a good estimate is about 10 to the 20,
亿颗
or 100 billion billion.
这就为展示我们对于生命不可思议的估计提供了
And that gives us a nice way to express our estimate
一个不错的视角
of life’s improbability.
如果我们可以将生命不可思议的范围在频谱上作一些标注的话
We could make some sort of landmark points
那么它看上去就会和
along a spectrum of improbability,
我们能够看到的电磁频谱的范围差不多
which might look like the electromagneticspectrum we just looked at.
如果生命能够在
If life has arisen only once on any —
每颗行星上 每颗恒星甚至 每个星系都起源一次的话
life could originate once per planet,could be extremely common
那生命体将会变得非常普遍
or it could originate once per star
但生命只在整个宇宙中起源
or once per galaxy or maybe only once
一次的话
in the entire universe,
那这只会是我们所处的这个宇宙了
in which case it would have to be here.
而其他的地方将
And somewhere up there would be the chance
很有可能会出现 诸如青蛙变王子
that a frog would turn into a prince,
之类的把戏了
and similar magical things like that.
如果生命的起源只发生在宇宙中的一个行星
If life has arisen on only one planet

in the entire universe,
那这颗行星只能是我们地球了
that planet has to be our planet,
因为我们现在正在谈论这个问题
because here we are talking about it.
这还意味着如果
And that means
我们接受这种观点的话
that if we want to avail ourselves of it,
我们就假定了生命的起源作为化学事件
we’re allowed to postulate chemical eventsin the origin of life
其概率可能低到10000亿亿分之一
which have a probability as low as one in 100 billion billion.
我本人并不认为我们必须接受这种观点
I don’t think we shall haveto avail ourselves of that,
因为我怀疑生命体在宇宙当中是非常普遍的
because I suspect that lifeis quite common in the universe.
但这依然意味着来自于不同方位
And when I say quite common,
的生命要彼此相见
it could still be so rare
的可能性是微乎其微的
that no one island of lifeever encounters another,
这看来是一种让人悲伤的观点
which is a sad thought.
我应该如何诠释“超乎想象的奇妙”呢?
How shall we interpret”queerer than we can suppose?”
这种奇妙是原则上就无法被想象的呢?
Queerer than can in principle be supposed,
还是说这种奇妙超出了我们想象的能力 而这种限制
or just queerer than we can suppose,given the limitations
是由于我们大脑受到的训练和进化都发生在中观世界中?
of our brain’s evolutionaryapprenticeship in Middle World?
我们是否可以通过训练、实践、从而使我们 从中观世界中解放出来从而以
Could we, by training and practice, emancipate ourselves from Middle World
某种新的带有直觉性的 而且精确的方式来理解中观世界之外的事物呢?
and achieve some sort of intuitiveas well as mathematical understanding
老实说
of the very small and the very large?
我也没有答案
I genuinely don’t know the answer.
我很好奇我们是否可以通过训练来帮助我们理解量子理论
I wonder whether we might help ourselves to understand, say,
例如在孩子
quantum theory,
的幼年时期 我们带着孩子玩一种电脑游戏
if we brought up childrento play computer games
这种电脑游戏模拟了粒子
beginning in early childhood,
在屏幕上的两条
which had a make-believe world of balls going
裂缝之间穿梭
through two slits on a screen,
这些奇怪的量子力学现象
a world in which the strange goings-on
因被电脑模拟
of quantum mechanics were enlarged
而更加形象
by the computer’s make-believe,
因此这些现象看起来像是中观世界中的溪流
so that they became familiar on the Middle-World scale of the stream.
同样的 一个模拟相对论的电脑游戏在屏幕上
And similarly, a relativisticcomputer game,
展示洛伦兹收缩现象等等
in which objects on the screen manifest the Lorentz contraction,

and so on,
有助于帮助我们及孩子们理解
to try to get ourselves —
这些现象
to get children into the way of thinking about it.
最后我想把有关中观世界的观点应用到我们对于
I want to end by applyingthe idea of Middle World
彼此的认知上来
to our perceptions of each other.
当今大多数科学家都会采取一种机械论的观点来看待我们的心智:
Most scientists today subscribeto a mechanistic view of the mind:
我们之所以以这种方式存在
we’re the way we are
是因为我们的大脑让我们这样存在
because our brains are wired up as they are,
是因为我们的荷尔蒙让我们这样存在
our hormones are the way they are.
如果我们在神经解剖学和生理化学层面上不同
We’d be different, our characterswould be different,
那我们将会显得不同 我们的性格将会不一样
if our neuro-anatomy and ourphysiological chemistry were different.
但是我们科学家的观点往往是不一致的
But we scientists are inconsistent.
否则 我们对于一个犯错误的人
If we were consistent, our response to a misbehaving person,
例如一个谋杀儿童的罪犯
like a child-murderer,
我们会认为这个家伙有个零件坏了
should be something like: this unit has a faulty component;
他需要修理一下
it needs repairing.
而现实中我们并不会这么说
That’s not what we say.
包括我在内
What we say —
这些最严肃的机械论者
and I include the most austerely mechanistic among us,
都会说 “变态佬!
which is probably me — what we say is,” Vile monster,
监狱是便宜你了!”
prison is too good for you.”
甚至 我们还有可能会采取一些报复行为 如果那样的话
Or worse, we seek revenge,in all probability thereby triggering
很有可能会引起一系列的反报复行为 显然
the next phase in an escalatingcycle of counter-revenge,
这就是我们今日的世界
which we see, of course,all over the world today.
简而言之 当我们像学者一样思考问题的时候
In short, when we’rethinking like academics,
我们把人看作是精妙复杂的机器
we regard people as elaborateand complicated machines,
就像电脑和小车一样
like computers or cars.
但是当我们回到现实的时候
But when we revert to being human,
我们的表现却又像是喜剧《弗尔蒂旅馆》中的Basil Fawlty
we behave more like Basil Fawlty,who, we remember,
我记得他在名为”gourmet night”
thrashed his car to teach it a lesson,
的一集中因为汽车无法发动 而狠狠的教训了
when it wouldn’t start on”Gourmet Night.”
一顿汽车
(Laughter)
我们之所以会拟人化地看待汽车和电脑的原因
The reason we personify thingslike cars and computers
可以类比于猴子生活在树上
is that just as monkeys livein an arboreal world
鼹鼠生活在地底
and moles live in an underground world
水黾生活在由张力主导的平面世界中
and water striders live in a surfacetension-dominated flatland,
我们生活在一个社会化的世界当中
we live in a social world.
我们穿梭在人海当中—— 这是一个社会化
We swim through a sea of people —
的中观世界版本
a social version of Middle World.
我们在进化过程中不断的预测别人的行为
We are evolved to second-guessthe behavior of others
从而变成了才华横溢 具有超强直觉的心理学家
by becoming brilliant,intuitive psychologists.
把人当作机器来看待 或许在科学和哲学层面上都是准确的
Treating people as machines may be scientificallyand philosophically accurate,
但如果你要猜测人们下一步会去干什么的话
but it’s a cumbersome waste of time
这就会是浪费时间
if you want to guess what this person is going to do next.
经济有效地对一个人建模的方法是
The economically useful wayto model a person
把他当做一个有目的的人 这个人有着愉悦和痛苦
is to treat him as a purposeful,goal-seeking agent
、欲望和企图、
with pleasures and pains,desires and intentions, guilt,
内疚、自责这些人格特性
blame-worthiness.
人格化以及求诸于个人意图
Personification and the imputingof intentional purpose
是明智且有效的对人类进行建模的方法
is such a brilliantly successfulway to model humans,
丝毫不让人惊奇的是 这种建模软件
it’s hardly surprisingthe same modeling software
在当我们去剖析那些不太靠谱的对象的时候会显得很有效例如
often seizes control when we’retrying to think about entities
Basil Fawlty和他的小车以及其它
for which it’s not appropriate,like Basil Fawlty with his car
不计其数想要天人合一的
or like millions of deluded people, with the universe as a whole.
家伙
(Laughter)
如果宇宙比我们能够想象的还要奇妙的话
If the universe is queererthan we can suppose,
是否是因为我们是被遴选的物种而天生需要承担
is it just becausewe’ve been naturally selected
想象那些我们需要想象的事物
to suppose only what we needed to suppose
从而能够从远古非洲中幸存下来?
in order to survivein the Pleistocene of Africa?
或者是否我们的大脑足够多才多艺并具有无穷的潜力以至于
Or are our brains so versatile and expandable
我们可以通过训练
that we can train ourselves
自己从而打破进化的盒子?
to break out of the box of our evolution?
或者还是说 宇宙中存在着一些无比奇妙的事物
Or finally, are there some thingsin the universe so queer
以至于没有任何一个物种 甚至是神 都无法想象到的?
that no philosophy of beings,however godlike, could dream them?
非常感谢!
Thank you very much.
非常感谢!
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1APOxsp1VFw

相关推荐