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为什么荷兰不在水下? – 译学馆
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为什么荷兰不在水下?

Why The Netherlands Isn't Under Water

This episode of Real Engineering was brought to you by Skillshare,
本次“实践工程”视频由“技能分享”赞助支持
home to over 16,000 classes that could teach you a new life skill.
“技能分享”网站拥有超过1.6万个可以教给你新生活技能的教程
The first 500 people that sign up with the link in the description
在本视频链接中报名的前五百名观众
will get a 2 month free trial.
将获得2个月的免费试用期
On a cold and stormy morning in January 1953,
1953年1月的一个寒冷的风暴肆虐的清晨
the Princess Victoria ferry was preparing
尽管有大风警告
to leave its dock in Stranraer on the south-west coast of Scotland,
维多利亚公主号渡船仍准备从苏格兰西南部的
despite gale-force warnings.
斯特兰拉尔码头起航
An hour into its journey its captain radioed for help
航行一小时后 因风暴阻挡渡船航行
as the storm forced the ferry on its side,
而导致无法登上救生艇
making it impossible to board the lifeboats.
船长向外发无线电求助
Of the 176 people aboard the princess victoria,
结果 登船的176人
only 43 survived.
只有43人生还
But there was more tragedy to come,
但更大的灾难还在其后
this storm was headed south towards the Netherlands,
风暴继续南下 逼近荷兰
and with the Moon and Sun causing even higher tides,
加上太阳和月亮的潮汐作用 海浪变得更高
this storm would severely test the flood defences of the Netherlands,
这次风暴严峻地考验了荷兰的防洪能力
which was still getting back on its feet after the Second World War.
而从二战结束至风暴发生时 荷兰仍处于百废待兴的状态
The storm would ultimately claim the lives of 1,835 people in the Netherlands,
这次风暴最终夺去了1835名荷兰人的生命
along with 200,000 cattle and flooding 2,000 square kilometres of land,
还有20万头牛 和2000平方公里的土地被洪水吞噬
destroying 43,000 homes
房屋毁坏4.3万栋
and forcing 72,000 people to flee.
迫使7.2万人背井离乡
Today, we are going to learn why this happened
今天我们就要来看看为什么会发生这一切
and how it would spark the construction of
以及这一切又是如何引发世界七大现代奇迹之一——
one of the seven modern wonders of the world: The Dutch Delta Works.
“荷兰北海保护工程”的建成的
After World War Ⅱ,
二战后
the meandering levees on the coast of the Netherlands
荷兰海岸线上曲曲折折的防洪堤
had fallen into disrepair,
落入了失修的状态
the Netherlands were just getting back onto their feet after 5 years of
荷兰刚脱离德国的5年殖民统治
German occupation, just 8 years prior to the storm.
而在8年后就经历了这次大风暴
The poorly maintained flood defences were a disaster waiting to happen.
其缺乏修缮的防洪设施只是在等待灾难的到来
As the storm approached, it forced water inlands with no-where to go, but up.
随着风暴临近 内陆水系水位无处可排只能上升
This put intense pressure on the dykes and levees of the low countries,
这就给低地国家的堤坝和防洪堤造成了急剧的压力
and by the storm’s end,
等到风暴结束后
139 kilometres of levees would be heavily damaged,
139千米的防洪堤毁坏严重
with holes up to 3.5 kilometres being torn open.
长达3.5千米的防洪堤被夷为平地
With nearly 26% of the Netherlands land area being under sea level,
荷兰约26%的土地被海水覆盖
seawater burst through these breaches with immense strength,
海水以巨大的力量冲过堤坝裂口
causing damage that would take decades to repair and
造成的损失需要花数十年才能修复
would spur the formation of the Delta Committee just 20 days later
同时也迅速促成了20天之后“三角洲委员会”的成立
to ensure this could never happen again and
委员会的成立旨在杜绝此类事件再次发生
this is what they came up with.
下面就是他们想出的方案
The new Delta plan would shorten the Dutch coastline by 700 kilometres,
新三角洲方案通过关闭这四个地方最初的入海口
by closing the primary inlets in these 4 locations,
而将荷兰原来的海岸线缩短700千米
this would drastically reduce the length of levees
这将很大程度上缩短需要观测和修缮的
and dykes that needed to be inspected and maintained
堤坝和防洪堤的长度
and thus decreasing the chances
从而降低出现防洪堤薄弱区的可能
of weak points jeopardising the safety of the Dutch people.
保护荷兰人民的生命安全
However, this was no easy task and would come with an enormous cost.
但是这项任务并不简单 且需要庞大的资金支持
Before these works could be completed,
在完成这项工作之前
additional barriers needed to be erected upstream to
需要溯流而上建立起另外的防护堤
improve fresh and saltwater management,
以加强淡水和海水管理
and prevent fresh water emptying from the Rhine, Meuse and Schelde river
并预防发源于莱茵河 默兹河和斯凯尔特河的淡水
from redirecting around these new dams.
在新建的堤坝周围重新改道
The northern most closure dam also needed to be equipped with a hydraulic sluice
最北部的锁坝也需要配备水利闸
capable of dealing with the output of the Rhine river,
以应对莱茵河的水量输出
as this fresh water would flood the Netherlands from the other direction,
因为莱茵河的淡水流一旦不能注入北海
if it was prevented from emptying into the North Sea.
就会从其他方向淹没低地势的荷兰
On top of all these, a number of ports, such as the port of Rotterdam and the port of Antwerp,
除了这些方面 一大批港口例如鹿特丹港和安特卫普港
had to stay accessible.
仍需保持通畅
So, aside from fixed dams, bridges and sluices,
所以 除了既定的堤坝 桥梁和水闸
two new locks that would allow an inland ship
还需在安特卫普港和鹿特丹港之间
route between Antwerp and Rotterdam needed to be built.
建造两个新的船闸 供内河船舶航行
Amazingly, on top of all this work,
令人惊叹的是 尽管要做这么多的工作
the dutch still managed to consider the environmental impact of this work.
荷兰人仍不忘考虑此次工程带来的环境影响
The largest of the structures built for the Delta Works project,
“北海保护工程”最大的一个建造部分——
the Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier,
东斯特海尔德大坝
was originally planned to completely close the mouth of this river,
一开始设计的是完全关闭这条河的入海口
which would create a fresh water basin.
这样就会形成一个淡水区盆地
However resistance to this plan arose,
然而反对该计划的声音不断加强
as it would completely change the saltwater environment of the area.
因为它会彻底改变该地区的海水环境
The Oosterschelde scenery is unique, with a great variety of fish, water plants and animals.
东斯特海尔德地区鱼类 水生植物以及动物 种类丰富 景致独特
So in 1976 the Dutch government agreed to a different plan:
因而在1976年 荷兰政府通过了另一种方案:
building an open barrier
即建造一个
that could be closed during heavy storms and high tides,
可在狂风高潮时关闭的开放型堤坝
adding another 2.5 billion euros to the cost to the project.
而这又给原计划增加了另外25亿欧元的预算
This barrier is 9 kilometres long with 62 openings,
开放型堤坝长9千米 拥有62个开放出入口
each 40 metres wide, allowing the tidal movement to remain in tact.
每个出入口宽40米 使得潮水可以自如穿过
To build a structure this massive, that needs to not only support it’s own weight, but
建造如此巨大的工程 使其不仅可以支撑自己的重量
the enormous force of a storm surge pushing against it,
还要能经受住狂风海浪的冲刷
would require extensive foundations.
因此底基就要打得无比牢靠
The first part of these foundations were created by forming two islands,
底基的第一部分是通过建成两个岛屿而形成的
the biggest of which housing a lock to allowing ships to pass through the barrier.
其中最大的底基包含一个船闸 可以使船舶通过堤坝
This island even included a massive dry dock
这个岛还包括了一个巨大的干船坞
to construct the 65 pylons needed to support the sluice gates,
用以建造支撑水闸门的65个桥塔
each using 7,000 cubic metres of concrete
每个桥塔耗费7千立方米的混凝土
and taking one-and-a-half years to build.
建造时间一年半
Between each island a trench was dug.
每个岛屿之间 挖了一个漕渠
On both sides of the trench, mats were placed to keep the seabed in place.
漕渠两边铺放了保持海床稳固的底板
While specially built ships were then used to consolidate the sand at the bottom of the trench,
虽然那时已经用特定船只来巩固漕渠底部的沙子
using special vibrating needles,
但仍使用了特殊的震动磁针
the sand would be vibrated to pack the sand firmly together,
通过震动 沙子就能紧紧的挤压在一起
creating a surface that could carry the weight of the massive pylons.
形成一个可以支撑巨大桥塔重量的表层
The trench itself was then covered with specially made mats filled with rocks
而特定的塞满石块的底板覆盖着漕渠本身
to help prevent erosion of the underlying sand.
以抵抗底层流沙的侵蚀
The pylons were left hollow so they could be picked up by another purpose-built, u-shaped ship,
桥塔内部是空的 以便于能够被u形船舶载到另一处
and moved into place.
需要的地方
There, inside the trench, on top of the mats,
也就是在漕渠里面 底板的上面
they would be lowered, filled with sand and closed with concrete.
桥塔被放下 内部填满沙子后再用混凝土封口
The wide foot of each pylon was packed in stone,
每个桥塔的宽大的底部被固定在石块上
as it is vital the pylons never move,
桥塔保持不动极为重要
because if even one of the massive, 260 to 480 tonne doors, cannot move,
因为即使是这些重达260至480吨的闸门当中的一个不能移动
the current in that location could become enormous and potentially damage the structure.
那聚积在附近的水压就会增长 极可能损害整个结构
Finally these enormous hydraulic pistons were attached to the sluice gates,
最后这些巨大的液压活塞被固定在水闸上
allowing 3 kilometres of the 9 kilometre long Storm Surge Barrier
从而9千米长大坝中的三分之一
to open and close on demand.
可以根据需要打开或闭合
This project truly is one of the modern wonders of the world,
这项工程无疑是世界现代奇迹之一
Allowing the dutch to rule the tide and ensure the chances of another devastating flood are
使得荷兰人得以掌控潮水 也大大降低了
dramatically reduced,
大洪水第二次冲击荷兰的可能
but with sea levels continuing to rise and warmers seas causing even stronger storms,
但是随着海平面上升和海水变暖带来更强的风暴
we need to remind ourselves of the lessons learned here.
我们需要提醒自己从中汲取教训
The flooding of New Orleans in 2005 occurred for many of the same reasons as the 1953 flooding of the Netherlands.
2005年新奥尔良大洪水发生的原因和1953年的荷兰大致相同
Poorly maintained levees broke well below their design tolerances,
防洪堤严重失修 离设计时的防洪能力相去甚远
allowing 80% of the city to be flooded in just 5 hours.
新奥尔良城在5个小时内就被洪水淹没了80%
Had New Orleans taken lessons from history and reduced the length of defences needed,
如果新奥尔良从历史中吸取了教训并降低了实际需要的堤坝长度
as they have done now with the 1.1 billion dollar Lake Borgne Surge Barrier,
就像他们现在花11亿美元建造博尔涅湖大坝那样
they may have saved of over 1000 people
那么他们就可以拯救超过1千人的生命
and prevented the 108 billion dollars of damage the storm caused.
并免除风暴造成的1080亿美元损失
If these trends continue,
如果这种趋势进一步发展
cities around the world are going to have to seriously assess the risk of flooding
全球各城市都将不得不认真评估洪水泛滥的危险
and make plans to prevent any chance of a flood taking the lives of their citizens.
并采取措施保护其市民免于被洪水夺去生命的任何可能
So you may admired some of the footage in this video,
好啦 或许你会很欣赏视频中的一些镜头
it’s not the first time I have travelled to a location to get footage,
这次实地拍摄对我来说不是第一次了
but it is the first time I have really felt really prepared.
但却是我感觉自己准备很充分的一次
Because I finally learned the necessary skills to use my equipment like a professional from Skillshare.
因为我从“技能分享”上学会了像专业人士一样使用我的设备的必要技能
I learned all the technical terms and settings to set up still shots of the storm surge barrier.
所有的专业词汇 大坝静止镜头的组装设置 都是学来的
I learned how to get cinematic shots with my drone
我也学会了怎样用无人机拍摄出电影的镜头
and I learned how to apply the correct colour corrections too.
也学会了怎样正确地调色
Skillshare is simply the best place on the Internet to learn creative skills
简言之 “技能分享”是网上学习创造性技能
that could help you develop a new life skill.
帮助你获得新的生存技能的最佳去处
With professional and understandable classes,
专业的易于理解的课程
that follow a clear learning curve.
按照清晰的学习曲线
You could even learn the skills to start a new business
你甚至可以学到开始一项新工作的技能
like I did for this channel,
就像我通过学习动画和编辑课程
through courses for animation and editing.
而做了这个视频
A Premium Membership begins around $10 a month for unlimited access to all courses,
高级会员每月只需不到10美元就可以无限制获得所有课程
but the first 500 people to sign up with this link will get a 2 month free trial.
但点击链接报名的前500名观众将获得2个月的免费试用期
In those 2 months you could easily learn the skills you need to start a new hobby or business.
两个月中 你可以轻易地学到培养一项新爱好或开始一个新工作的技能
So ask yourself right now.
现在就问问你自己
What skill have you been putting off learning.
什么技能是你想学却一直没学的?
What project have you been dreaming of completing,
什么项目是你一直梦想完成的
but you aren’t sure if you have the skills to do it.
但却不确信自己有足够的技能完成的?
Why not start right now and sign up to Skillshare using the link below.
为什么不现在就行动起来 点击下方链接报名加入“技能分享”呢?
You have nothing to lose and a valuable life skill to gain.
你什么也不会失去 而是会得到宝贵的生活技能
As usual, thank you for watching and thank you to all my patreon supporters for helping this channel exist.
跟往常一样 感谢观看 感谢所有网站的支持者们
If you would like to see more from me or see more content from Real Engineering,
想看更多我制作的或“实践工程”的视频
like sneak peeks for upcoming videos,
比如先睹接下来的视频
check out the links for my Instagram, Twitter and Facebook accounts in the description.
就点击图上我的Instagram Twitter和Facebook链接吧

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视频概述

作为世界著名低地国的荷兰,是如何保持自己不被海水覆盖的?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

审核员D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6DRRHXt-PA

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