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为什么雄性黑寡妇是一个真正的家庭清障车 – 译学馆
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为什么雄性黑寡妇是一个真正的家庭清障车

Why the Male Black Widow is a Real Home Wrecker | Deep Look

本集《微观深望》由《好奇之流》提供
This episode of Deep Look is brought to you by Curiosity Stream.
你知道人们怎么说她吗?
You know what people say about her?
她是黑寡妇
She’s the black widow.
她交配后杀死对方 对吧?
She mates, and then she kills, right?
她的受害者来了
Here comes her victim now.
他更小 毒性较少
He’s smaller, less venomous.
还有一点点可爱
Kinda cute.
可爱的小家伙
Sweet little guy.
但在他被活生生吃掉之前
But before he gets eaten alive…
让我们来谈谈这个可怜的笨蛋
Let’s talk about this poor sucker for a minute.
看看他的“受害者”成分有多少
And how much of a “victim” he really is.
这种西部黑寡妇生活在加利福尼亚
This western black widow lives in California.
为了谋生她非常拼命
She works pretty hard to make a living.
不像许多蜘蛛每天晚上织一张新网
Unlike many spiders that build a new web each night,
她一生都在同一个网上
she toils continuously on the same
不停地工作
one her whole life.
这个网可能看起来很乱 但是不要被骗了
This web may look messy, but don’t be fooled.
这个网还连有牵引线网格
It’s laid out on a grid of draglines
一直连接到地上
that she attaches to the ground.
这是一个多层粘性陷阱
It’s a multi-story sticky trap that
经得起一些相当残忍的游戏
stands up to some pretty tough game.
当她咬伤猎物时 毒液就会起作用
When she bites, the venom takes hold,
造成缓慢的麻痹
bringing a slow paralysis,
这致命的编织者缠绕 缠绕 不断地缠绕
As this lethal knitter wraps, and wraps, and wraps.
但这并不是唯一挂在网上的东西……
But that’s not the only thing hanging around the web…
还有这个家伙
There’s this guy.
成年雄性黑寡妇蜘蛛不会自己织网
Adult male widow spiders don’t build webs of their own.
他会直接进雌寡妇蜘蛛的网里
He moves right into hers.
其实他就是个擅自占地者
Basically, he’s a squatter.
然后宣布她已名花有主
He’s staking his claim to her,
因为他知道网上的每一条粘糊糊的线
because he knows every sticky thread of the web is covered
都粘满了她的费洛蒙
in her pheromones.
这让她的交配气味四处传播
And that spreads her mating scent far and wide,
可能会引来其它不错的雄性供她选择
potentially attracting a nice selection of other males for her to choose from
他不允许这样的事发生
Which is not on his agenda.
所以 他要毁了这个地方
So, he trashes the place.
他四处剪断她的网
He goes around snipping strands of her web,
毁掉了她辛勤劳动的成果
undoing all her hard work.
他用自己的丝绸卷起松散的丝线
He winds up the loose threads in his own silk,
对该地区其他雄性掩盖她的气味
masking her scent from other males in the area.
这叫做“断网”
It’s called web reduction.
当他最终试图和她交配时
When he finally tries to mate with her.
看到他在震动吗?
See that vibrating?
那是他在向她示爱
That’s him signaling his interest.
他用自己精致的蛛丝包裹她的四肢
He wraps her limbs in his own delicate silk.
这可能是为了用他的费洛蒙包围她
It probably serves to surround her in his pheromones.
科学家称之为“新娘面纱”
Scientists call it the bridal veil.
它似乎征服了她
It seems subdues her.
让她更平易近人
Makes her more approachable.
当他们交配时 他会在她的身体
When they mate, he leaves behind a piece
留下一块卷曲的器官 叫做“须肢”
of this curlicue-shaped organ, called an embolus in her body.
阻止其他雄性再成为她后代的父亲
It blocks other males from fathering her offspring later.
让我们看看
So let’s see…
懒惰
Lazy.
粗鲁
Rude.
凌乱
Messy.
控制欲强
Controlling.
好的
Ok.
现在让我们看着他被吃掉
Now let’s watch him get eaten.
事实上31种黑寡妇蜘蛛中的多数种类
Actually, in most widow spider species, and there are 31,
雄性黑寡妇不会被吃掉
the males don’t get eaten.
他们逃脱了斯科特的追捕
They escape scott free.
澳大利亚赤背蜘蛛是仅有的两种
The Australian redback is one of only two
交配时几乎都会上演同类相残的其中一种
where cannibalism almost always occurs when they mate.
他直接朝她的嘴翻了个筋斗
He literally somersaults himself towards her mouth
这样她就能咬第一口
so she can take the first bite,
这让她很感兴趣
which keeps her interested.
在他最终死去之前 他们会像这样交配几次
They’ll mate a few times like this before he finally dies.
科学家称之为“自我牺牲”
Scientists describe it as a self-sacrifice.
她会慢慢来 然后大口吃掉他的内脏
And she’ll take her time, devouring his insides later.
他也无能为力 对吧?
Least he can do, right?
本集由流媒体订阅服务
This episode is brought to you by Curiosity Stream,
《好奇之流》提供
a subscription streaming service that
《好奇之流》提供部分全球最佳电影制作人
offers documentaries and nonfiction titles
制作的纪录片和非小说电影
from some of the world’s best filmmakers,
包括独家原创作品
including exclusive originals.
想了解更多有关蜘蛛栖息地的知识吗?
Want to learn more about spiders’ habitats?
《好奇之流》原创短片
Curiosity Stream’s original short film
《大世界小花园》
“Big World Small Garden ”
为您展现伦敦后院忙乱复杂的自然世界
captures the hectic and complex natural world of a London backyard.
在CuriosityStream.com/deeplook注册
To get unlimited access and your first two months free,
并使用推广代码Deeplook登录
sign up at CuriosityStream.com/deeplook,
就能获得无限制访问权及两个月免费服务
and use the promo code Deeplook during the signup process.
那如果黑寡妇蜘蛛咬了你怎么办?
So what if a black widow spider bit you?
这不一定会致命……
Well, it probably wouldn’t kill you…
事实上我们也找不到一个
in fact, we couldn’t find a documented case
有记载的黑寡妇蜘蛛致人死亡的案例
of human death from a black widow spider.
但这绝不是玩笑
But it’s definitely no joke.
看看就好 但别碰她
So look, but don’t touch her.
难道又是毒药的谣言?
Another poison myth?
就像那些置人死地的万圣节糖果?
How bout that Halloween candy that was supposed to kill you?
观看由PBS数字工作室出品的
Watch this episode of the Origin of Everything
《万物起源》
from PBS Digital Studios
找出每天日常谜团的答案吧
to find out the answer to that and other everyday mysteries.
感谢收看《微观深望》!
And thanks for watching Deep Look!

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