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为什么iPhone不能在美国制造? – 译学馆
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为什么iPhone不能在美国制造?

Why the iPhone Can't Be Made in the US

在任何一部iPhone手机的背面 你都会看到一段熟悉的印刷文字
Take a look at the back of any iPhone and you’ll see a familiar phrase that’s been printed
在差不多十万多部(苹果的)标志性产品上都印有同样的文字
on almost one billion units of the iconic product.
加利福尼亚苹果公司设计
Designed by Apple in California.
中国组装
Assembled in China
就像苹果的所有细节一样 这段文字是富有深意的
Like everything at Apple, that wording is deliberate.
苹果公司设计(产品)外观 编写软件 研发新技术并且
Apple designs the exterior, writes the software, researches new technologies and develops its
在加利福尼亚开发自己的芯片 这使得它能够以高于成本65%的价格销售设备
own chips in California, which allows it to to sell devices for 65 percent more than their cost
但iPhone在中国进行组装是有原因的
But iPhones are assembled in China for a reason.
可以很容易推断出廉价的劳工是原因之一
It’s easy to assume that reason is cheaper labor.
确实(中国工人的)薪酬更低 但这并不是全部的原因
While wages are lower, this doesn’t tell the whole story.
实际上 组装费用只占一部iPhone硬件价格的2%
In fact, assembly is only 2% of an iPhones hardware cost.
今天 大部分iPhone是在中国的两座城市生产的:深圳和郑州
Today, most iPhones are made in two chinese cities: Shenzhen and Zhengzhou.
在当地政府政策的大力支持下 深圳成为了世界电子产品工厂
Favorable government policies helped Shenzhen become the electronics factory to the world
其中最大的当属台湾富士康公司
… with Taiwanese company Foxconn its biggest employer.
因此 上千家公司以及数百万工人来到这座中国南方城市
As a result, thousands of companies and millions of workers have moved to the southern Chinese
以便就近参与产业协作
city to be close to the action.
在iPhone的生产旺季 富士康雇佣的工人超过一百万 而在生产淡季
During peak iPhone season, Foxconn hires almost a million people, cutting its workforce to
工人数量会削减至数十万
a few hundred thousand during low season.
深圳这种产业聚集效应意味着 大多数公司处于50英里半径区域内 且需要从事与手机
Such a cluster effect in Shenzhen means that most of the components needed to make a phone,
笔记本电脑或者无人机等相关的制造业
a laptop, or a drone are within a fifty mile radius.
目前为止 那些尝试主动布局以形成这种聚集效应的努力都失败了
Attempts to recreate this cluster have so far failed.
巴西就是个典型的例子……
Brazil is the perfect example…
苹果在巴西面临高昂的进口关税 因此游说富士康在当地建厂生产iPhone
Apple was facing high import tariffs in Brazil and urged Foxconn to make iPhones there.
在(考察)确保当地(建厂)红利之后 富士康建立起一座工厂
After securing local incentives, Foxconn built a factory.
但这并没能改变什么
But very little changed.
富士康并没有在巴西开展多少高端制造项目 而是继续
Rather than doing lots of high-level manufacturing in Brazil, Foxconn continued to do most of
回到中国生产 因为中国的供应链更集中并且零件能够提前组装
the work back in China where the supply chain was nearby and parts could be preassembled.
这意味着一部iPhone的大多数零件是在中国制造的 然后仅仅是运输到巴西
This meant that most of an iPhone was made in China and merely shipped to Brazil for
由当地工人像拼乐高玩具一样组装起来而已
local workers to slot together like lego.
最后巴西的这个项目在两个层面宣告失败——公司雇佣的劳工数远低于政府预期
In the end, the Brazil project failed on two levels – it hired a fraction of the workers
并且 上百家苹果供应商中的任何一家都没有被吸引来
the government had expected and it didn’t attract any of Apple’s hundreds of suppliers.
如果要在美国本土生产iPhone 似乎更可能是按照巴西模式
If an iPhone is to be made in the U.S., it’s more likely to follow the Brazil model, not
而不是深圳模式来 这就意味着工作岗位非常少 并且对这些工人来说
the Shenzhen model, which means far few jobs and for those workers,
为苹果公司打工就和(在果园)摘苹果一样具有季节性
making for Apple would be as seasonal as picking apples.
所以虽然也许有一天美国会自夸一部iPhone是“美国组装”的
So while the U.S. could one day boast an iPhone “Assembled in America.”
问题是 这真的是他们想要的吗?
the question is, does it really want to?

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中国的产业聚集效应不是可以照搬模仿的,所以iPhone在美国制造并不符合厂家利益

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