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为什么电动汽车是未来的发展方向?

Why the Future of Cars is Electric

I was invited here, to Munich, by BMW the sponsor of this video
我受本视频的赞助商宝马之邀来到慕尼黑
to find out why the future of cars is electric.
来弄清为什么汽车的未来是电动汽车
But electric cars are actually nothing new
电动汽车实际上并不新鲜
they date back to 1832, well before the first gasoline-powered car.
发明于1832年 远早于汽油汽车
In fact, the first car to go faster than a hundred kilometers
实际上 第一辆时速超过100公里的车
per hour was in 1899, an electric one,
诞生于1899年 是一辆电动汽车
called the Jamais Contente, meaning “never satisfied”.
叫“Jamais Contente” 意为“永不满足”
But people were apparently satisfied with electric cars.
但显然那时候人们对电动汽车很满意
By 1910,
截止1910年
they were almost twice as common on the American roads
它们在美国公路上行驶的数量
as internal combustion engines.
几乎是内燃机汽车的两倍
But then came the Model T, which at $650
但是后来出现了售价为650美元的Model T
was significantly cheaper than comparable electric cars
要比同类的电动汽车便宜得多
and as gas stations popped up around the country,
随着加油站如雨后春笋般出现在全国各地
they could be quickly refueled,
汽车可以很快补充燃料
allowing you to travel farther, faster, and cheaper than electric cars,
相比电动汽车 能让你走得更远更快 也更便宜
which took a long time to recharge.
而电动汽车需要很长时间充电
So by 1935, the electric vehicle had been commercially obliterated.
截止1935年 电动汽车在商业上已被淘汰
But electric cars were still useful for some things:
但是电动汽车在一些方面仍然有用
in the vacuum of space,
在太空的真空状态下
an electric vehicle was the obvious choice for the Apollo lunar roving vehicle.
电动汽车显然是阿波罗月球漫游车的首选
It was a single-use vehicle due to its non rechargeable
由于其不可充电的银锌氢氧化钾电池
silver zinc potassium hydroxide battery,
它是一种一次性的交通工具
and it had a range of just 92 kilometers.
它的续航里程只有92公里
But the astronauts never needed even half of this range.
但是宇航员甚至不需要这个距离的一半
At the Munich Olympics in 1972,
在1972年的慕尼黑奥运会上
to lead marathon runners in their race,
为了在比赛中指引马拉松运动员
BMW created an electric version of its two series car.
宝马为其两款系列车型开发了电动版
The car ran on 12 large car batteries for
这辆车由12块大型汽车电池驱动
a maximum range of 60 kilometers, or 37 miles
最大续航能力为60公里 即37英里
This demonstrated the benefits of electric vehicles:
这证明了电动汽车的好处
they can run quietly with no emissions.
它们可以安静地行驶 不排放废气
But it also illustrated their limitations:
但这也说明了它们的局限性
with the battery technology available at the time,
由于当时的电池技术
electric cars were expensive and short-range, impractical for everyday use.
电动汽车价格贵 续航里程短 不适合日常用
So why are electric cars the future?
为什么电动车是未来方向呢?
In 2020
在2020年
BMW is launching the iX3 all-electric sport utility vehicle,
宝马将推出iX3全电动运动型多用途车
and they plan to have 25 electrified vehicles in their fleet by 2023.
他们计划截止到2023年拥有25款电动汽车
A lot of their concept cars, like the Vision M Next,
他们的很多概念车 比如Vision M Next
are electric vehicles
都是电动汽车
and they have a Formula-E car
他们有一辆电动方程式赛车
which can now run a whole race on a single battery pack.
现在只用一个电池组就可以跑完全程
This is all made possible by developments in battery technology.
电池技术的发展使这一切成为可能
Batteries have gotten a lot better,
电池变得更好了
particularly with the introduction of lithium ion batteries.
特别是随着锂离子电池的引入
First used in mobile phones about 30 years ago,
大约30年前首次用于移动电话
lithium ion batteries have almost two times more energy in the same volume
在相同容量下 锂离子电池的能量几乎是
than the next-best battery chemistry.
仅次于它的电池的化学能量的两倍
Because of their use in many consumer products
由于它们在许多消费产品中的使用
like phones and laptops,
如手机和笔记本
their manufacturing costs continue to decline,
受制造和供应链优化驱动
driven by manufacturing and supply chain optimization.
它们的制造成本持续下降
Over the last three decades,
在过去的三十年里
the energy density has increased both per unit mass and per unit volume,
单位质量和单位体积的能量密度都增加了
while the price has plummeted.
而价格却直线下跌
This is unlike internal combustion engines which,
内燃机与电池不同
after a century of development,
经过了一个世纪的发展
have few areas left for improvement.
内燃机几乎没有需要改进的地方了
And the reality is, you don’t really travel that far in a car.
而事实是 你并不是真的开车走那么远
The batteries available today are good enough for all but the longest road trips.
除长途旅行外 现在市面上的电池已经足够了
In the US, 99% of trips are under 160 kilometers, or 100 miles.
在美国 99%的旅行都在160公里即100英里以下
And electric cars are just better vehicles.
电动汽车确实是更好的交通工具
Here are my top 10 reasons why:
以下是我的十大理由:
First: more torque from a standstill.
第一 起步时的扭矩更大
2. Thanks to the batteries under the floor,
第二 由于电池在底盘下
they have a low center of mass and so better handling.
电动汽车的重心低 所以操控性更好
3. Since you can drive electric motors independently,
第三 因为电机可以独立驱动
you can have precise control over each wheel
你可以对每个轮子进行精确控制
for maximum traction
以获得最大的牵引力
4. Electric cars are quieter.
第四 电动汽车更安静
5. Electric cars are cheaper to run than gas cars,
第五 开电动汽车比汽油车更便宜
because gas is more expensive than electricity for the same distance traveled.
因为在同样的驾驶距离下 汽油比电更贵
6. Electric cars are more efficient than gas cars,
第六 电动汽车比汽油汽车更有效率
both in converting stored energy into energy of motion
既可以将储存的能量转化为运动的能量
and in regenerating some of that energy when braking.
也可以在刹车时再生一部分能量
7. You never have to visit a gas station,
第七 你不必去加油站
because you can recharge at home.
因为你可以在家里充电
8. There’s less maintenance: fewer moving parts,
第八 更少的维护 更少的移动部件
no oil changes,
无需更换机油
and the brakes wear out less often thanks to regenerative braking.
由于再生制动 刹车磨损更少
9. And depending on the source of electricity, in my case, solar panels,
第九 依电力来源 比如我的车由太阳能电池板供电
electric cars don’t produce any CO2 at all,
电动汽车完全不产生二氧化碳
so they don’t contribute to climate change.
所以它们不会造成气候变化
Plus, as cars become essentially computers on wheels,
另外 随着汽车本质上变成带轮子的电脑
electric vehicles are leading the way towards self-driving cars.
电动汽车正引领着自动驾驶汽车的发展
Alright we’re gonna start our ride in an autonomous vehicle,
好了 我们要开始自动驾驶汽车了
my first time ever:
这是我的第一次
Level 4 autonomy.
自主四级
Once this becomes commonplace,
一旦这成为普遍现象
it’s likely we’ll change how we see cars:
我们可能会改变对汽车的看法
from something we own that sits idle for most of its existence,
从我们拥有的大部分时间闲置着的东西
to transportation as a service,
到作为服务的运输工具
something we ride in to get from point A to point B,
带我们从A点行驶到B点的某种工具
and something we share with others.
以及我们与他人分享的东西
There are still a lot of details to work out,
尽管还有很多细节问题需要解决
but it’s clear to me that
但在我看来
the future of cars is electric, autonomous, and shared.
未来汽车显然是电动的 自动的 共享的

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视频概述

简单介绍了电动汽车的以往发展情况,以及电动汽车是未来的发展方向的原因,以及对未来电动汽车的憧憬。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

无名之辈

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GATuMWAFBUA

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