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为什么特斯拉能秒加速? – 译学馆
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为什么特斯拉能秒加速?

Why Teslas Accelerate So Fast

There it goes.
开始加速
2.3 seconds.
用时2点3秒
That’s all it takes
这点时间对于特斯拉来说
for this Tesla to reach 60 mph from a standstill.
从开始加速到每小时60英里已经足够了
That’s quicker than a Bugatti Chiron,
它比世界上最快的车
the fastest car in the world,
布加迪凯龙还快
which takes 2.5 seconds to go from zero to 60.
布加迪凯龙从0加速到60只用2点5秒
Tesla engineers worked for years to shave tenths of a second
为了让特斯拉Model S快这十分之一秒
off the Model S Performance’s acceleration time.
特斯拉的设计者们为此努力了很多年
So, what exactly makes it so good at accelerating so fast?
所以 究竟是什么使它能够加速这么快?

First off, electric vehicles will always be more efficient
首先 电动汽车将会比传统的内燃机汽车
than your typical combustion-engine car.
更加的有效率
And the more efficient a car is,
并且一辆车越有效率
the better it performs.
那么它表现得就越好
Gas-powered cars are filled with thousands of parts
汽油动力汽车由上千个零件组成
linking together different mechanical components
使用不同的机械零件组装在一起
to deliver the power from the engine to the wheels.
以此来实现动力的传送
To do this, the engine sends power to the transmission,
为了达到目的 需要引擎给变速器传输动力
which converts that power to usable energy through gears,
变速器通过齿轮 离合器和不同的电器部件
clutches, and different electrical components
将动力转化为可用的能量
before sending it to the driveshaft,
然后再将其运送到驱动轴
which ultimately rotates the wheels.
最终使轮子转动起来
At every point in this process, there’s a loss of energy
在这个过程中 由于各种部件的摩擦
due to the friction of the various moving parts.
导致每一处都会有能量损失
Electric vehicles are much simpler in part
相比之下 电动汽车就更加简便了
because they can accelerate
因为它们不用换挡就可以
from zero to their top speed without shifting a single gear.
从0加速到最高速度
Since electric vehicles don’t have to shift gears,
既然电动汽车不用换挡
all of the torque they can produce
那么它所产生的转矩
is available from zero rpm, or rotations per minute.
都可以从零转速或者每分钟的旋转中获得
This is what’s referred to as instant torque.
这就是瞬时转矩
But let’s take a step back
让我们后退一步
and talk about where that power comes from.
来讨论一下这个动力是从哪来的
The battery.
电池
EV batteries range from about 20 kilowatt-hours
电动汽车电池容量从每小时20瓦特
to 100 kilowatt-hours.
到100瓦特不等
This number represents how much energy the battery can store,
这些数字代表电池容量
also known as energy density.
也叫作能量密度
The 100-kilowatt-hour battery pack
在Model S的性能中
found in the Model S performance
发现100千瓦时的电池组
makes 762 horsepower,
可以产生762马力
which is on par with Lamborghini Aventador SVJ,
与兰博基尼Aventador SVJ不相上下
But it’s the power density of that battery
但决定电池电量多少的
that determines how much power can be delivered to the electric motor per second.
不是能量密度 而是电池的功率密度
The higher the power density,
功率密度越高
the faster the car can accelerate.
汽车就可以加速越快
Tesla declined to share the exact power density of its batteries,
特斯拉公司拒绝透露其电池确切的功率密度
but a quick look
快速对比观察后会发现
at how the Model S Performance compares to other EVs
Model S的性能与其他汽车相比
will prove it is one of the most power-dense batteries
会发现它是当今电动汽车电池中
in an electric vehicle available today.
功率密度最高的电池之一
But power isn’t everything.
但功率并不能决定一切
A car can only accelerate
一辆车的加速速度
as fast as the tires can grip the road.
和轮胎抓地力呈正比
Traction is one of the most important factors
在赛车竞赛中
when it comes to racing.
抓地力也是一个重要因素
If your tires can’t grip the road,
如果你的车抓地力不强
then your car isn’t going anywhere.
那么你是哪里也到不了的
Tesla incorporates three features commonly found
特斯拉结合了其他高性能车中常见的三个特点
in other performance cars to maximize traction
以最大的限度
between the tires and the road,
提高轮胎和路面之间的牵引力
which allows the car to accelerate more efficiently.
这将使汽车可以高效率的加速
The first is all-wheel drive.
第一种是全轮驱动
Two electric motors at the front and rear of the car
汽车前后两个电机
deliver power to all four wheels at the same time,
同时为四个轮胎提供动力
which, of course, increases traction.
当然 这增加了牵引力
Then there’s torque vectoring.
然后是扭矩的矢量控制
Tesla’s software measures how well
特斯拉的设备
each of the tires are gripping the road
可以测量每个轮胎的抓地力
and adjusts torque in the front and rear
并以每秒数百次的速度
independently hundreds of times per second
调整前后轮胎的扭矩
to ensure the tires are constantly achieving maximum grip
以确保轮胎能持续拥有最大抓地力
and propelling the car forward.
并驱动汽车前进
And lastly, Tesla uses a tire with a thread pattern
最后 特斯拉轮胎的螺纹也很特别
specifically developed to maximize contact with the ground.
能够保证汽车最大限度的与地面接触
So far, everything in Model S Performance,
到目前为止 除特斯拉电池技术外
with the exception of Tesla’s battery technology,
Model S的所有性能
can be found in other performance cars or EVs.
都可以在其他的电动汽车上找到
These features together give the Model S
这些性能能够使Model S
a zero to 60 of 3.7 seconds,
在3点7秒内从0加速到60
which makes its acceleration comparable
它的加速性能可以与
to the Alfa Romeo Giulia
阿尔法的Romeo Giulia
or the Dodge Challenger Hellcat,
或者道奇挑战者的Hellcat相媲美
both of which are impressive performance cars on their own.
这两款车都是令人印象深刻的性能车
But the not-so-secret sauce that propels the Model S
但促使Model S成为超级跑车
to supercar performance
并且比另一款车型快1点3秒
and shaves off another 1.3 seconds
的不那么神秘的因素
is Ludicrous Plus mode and launch control.
竟然是附加模式和弹射装置
Ludicrous Plus mode preps the battery
通过DragTimes对汽车固件的测试
for maximum performance
发现这附加模式
by heating it to precisely 122 degrees
可以精确的将电池加热到122摄氏度
to improve power output by about 46 horsepower,
使其输出功率提高大约46马力
according to DragTimes’ recent test of the latest firmware update.
从而使电池达到最佳性能
The motors,inverters and transmission
引擎 反相器和变速器
can handle higher temperatures for a longer period of time
可以在更长的时间内承受高温
before the car limits power
然后汽车会限制动力
to cool the car’s components down,
来进行冷却
allowing the car to endure strenuous driving
从而使汽车能够进行比较激烈的驾驶
like drag racing longer.
就像飙车一样
With launch control,
随着弹射装置的发动
the front suspension squats into a cheetah stance
汽车前悬架形成猎豹似的姿势
to keep force on the front tires more consistent
以保持动力均匀集中在前轮
to further improve traction.
从而提升牵引力
The axle is also preloaded with a small amount of torque,
车轴也会形成少量的扭矩
similar to pulling a slingshot back
原理类似发射弹珠之前
to build tension before launching a projectile.
要拉扯弹弓以建立张力一样
But in this case, the projectile is the car.
而在这 这个车就是弹珠
There isn’t just one feature that can be attributed
然而让Model S出彩的
to the incredible performance of the Model S.
并不仅仅是这一个特性
Instead, it’s a system that maximizes power
而是它能够在每个阶段
and efficiency at every stage.
整个系统都能最大化的发挥效率

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视频概述

一代传奇特斯拉为什么能够在短时间内加速到极致,并且能够与其他跑车相媲美?是车型、是引擎还是其他的一些装置?快来一探究竟吧。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdM1P1fOb5M

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