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揭秘:瑞典最北小镇为何东迁两英里

Why Sweden Is Moving Its Northernmost Town 2 Miles East

This is Kiruna,
这是基律纳
the northernmost town in Sweden
瑞典最北部的小镇
and the Kiruna-est town in the world.
世上独一无二的基律纳
One thing about Kiruna is that it’s always been here.
本来 基律纳一直坐落在这里
But soon instead of being here,
但不久后 就不在这儿了
it’ll be here.
会变到这儿
Why? Well, because of woke cancel culture.
原因?因为觉醒的“取消文化”
If by woke cancel culture you mean
开个玩笑而已 其实是因为
the angle of the world’s largest iron ore deposit.
世界最大铁矿床的角度
You see, back in 1900,
你看 早在1900年
a mining company called LKAB said to themselves,
卢基矿业公司的人私下议论道
wouldn’t it be neat if we became very rich and successful
只要开采世上最大的铁矿床
by mining the world’s largest iron ore deposit?
就能发家致富 飞黄腾达 岂不妙哉?
And so they did.
他们说干就干
But the problem was mining required people
问题是采矿需要矿工
and people required houses,
矿工需要住房
and so LKAB established the town of Kiruna.
于是卢基公司建立了基律纳镇
LKAB, by the way,
顺带一提
is short for Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag,
卢基是卢奥萨山-基律纳山有限责任公司的简称
which you didn’t need to know.
好吧 这不重要
My writer she just liked to torture me.
编辑故意刁难我罢了
Anyways, over time the town grew
总之 小镇不断发展
and built buildings like
造了各种房子
this one, and this one,
比如这种 这种
and even this one.
甚至还有这种
They also got more and more people
小镇的人也越来越多
like this one, and this one, and this one.
比如这样 这样 和这样的
In fact, some of the people even build an entire hotel made of ice
事实上 甚至有人用冰造了整栋酒店
that you can visit.
你可以去看看
If you always wanted to pay a lot of money to sleep on something
如果你不介意花很多钱睡在
that’s hard, cold and wet of the same time.
又硬又冷又潮的东西上
And everything was good and nice and happy
一切都挺好 很和谐 很愉快
or at least as good and nice and happy as things can be
至少表面上大家尽力了
when year round temperatures average below freezing
因为这里的年平均气温在零下
and you spend 5 months of the year in almost total darkness.
一年有5个月没有白昼 只有黑夜
And all the while as the town grew,
小镇不断发展的同时
the mine kept plain as little “mine” games.
采矿就像日常打游戏一样平淡
In fact, Kiruna’s mine accounts for a staggering
惊人的事实是 基律纳的铁矿占有
90% of the EU’s iron ore market,
欧盟铁矿市场90%的份额
in part beacuse it produces some of the ironiest iron around.
一部分原因是 这里产出的铁矿石品位极高
Almost other iron sources will produce ore of about 30% to 40% purity.
其他铁矿产出的铁矿石含铁率只有30%到40%
Kiruna’s ore is about 65% to 70% pure
基律纳铁矿石的含铁率有65%到70%
which as all your ore has out there already knew,
这下你应该明白了吧
means that it can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces.
基律纳矿石可以直接被送入炼铁的高炉
Now, if there’s one thing we know about mining
现在 有一件事可以确定
is that it always goes perfectly
那就是采矿一切顺利
and never has any negative environmental consequences.
从来没有造成任何环境问题
And yet, somehow,
然而 不知怎么的
putting a town next to a giant constantly expanding mine hasn’t proved to be
事实证明 把小镇建在不断扩张的巨型矿山旁边
the brilliant sustainable real estate move it sounds like.
不是什么明智的可持续的房地产行为
Basically, the problem is that the iron ore deposit that sustains the mine
根本问题是 矿井下面的铁矿床
goes into the ground at a 60° angle towards Kiruna,
以60°角倾斜延伸至基律纳城区地下
which means that the deeper you dig into the deposit,
这意味着 你对矿床挖得越深
the further towards the town you go.
就越靠近基律纳城区
And every time miners dig out ore,
每次矿工挖出矿石后
subsidence occurs on the overlying surface.
地表都会出现下沉的情况
Around 2004, cracks are deformed
2004年前后 地面受损开裂
that threatened the structural intergrity of the land of Kiruna stood on.
这威胁到了基律纳所在土地的结构完整性
It was apparent that if mining continued,
很明显 如果继续采矿
the problem would only get worse.
事情只会越来越糟
And so the town had a choice.
所以基律纳人面临抉择
They could either force the mine to stop operating
要么强行停止采矿
or they could allow Kiruna to be destroyed.
要么眼看着基律纳小镇被毁
At first this sounds like a cartoonishly easy choice.
乍听起来这个抉择跟过家家一样简单
If this were an episode of the Mandalorian, the answer would be obvious.
如果这是《曼达洛人》的情节 答案显而易见
Small town takes on the big mine, forces it to shut down.
小城镇战胜大矿井 迫使矿井关闭
The protagonist has an unconsummated flirtation with one of the town’s people.
主角和镇上一个人暧昧不清 藕断丝连
And at the end, it says written and directed by Jon Favreau.
影片的最后写着编剧和导演是乔恩·费儒
It’s actually a bit more complicated than that.
现实当然比这要复杂一点
4,000 of the town’s 20,000-ish residents worked at the mine
镇上两万左右的居民中有四千人在矿厂工作
meaning that shutting it down would unemploy 20% of the town’s population.
这意味着 关闭矿厂将会导致镇上20%的人口失业
So instead of trying to run a town on the ice hotel on their economy,
所以与其指望开冰屋酒店来维持小镇的经济
another solution was proposed:
不如提出另一个解决方案:
we should take Kiruna and push it somewhere else.
我们得把基律纳搬到其他地方去
In the end, 80% of residents voted to
最后 80%的居民投票决定
allow the mine to keep operating and relocate the town.
允许继续采矿并把城镇迁到新址
Specifically they were relocating this section of Kiruna, which is closest to the mine
确切地说 他们要把基律纳离矿厂最近的区域搬走
and it is expected to become dangerous by 2035.
那里预计会在2035年变得危险
It includes Kiruna city center,
那里有基律纳的市中心
its 109 year-old church,
有109年历史的教堂
its 58-year-old clock tower
有58年历史的钟楼
and about 6,000 of its variously aged people,
还有约六千名各种年龄的居民
all of whom will be given a choice.
这些居民都面临两个选择
LKAP buy their home for market value plus 25%
卢基公司以高于市场价25%的价格买下他们的房子
or LKAP just buy them a new home in the new city center.
或者直接在新城区为他们买一套新房
Meanwhile, 21 buidings of historical or cultural importance,
与此同时 21座具有历史或文化价值的建筑物
including the church and clock tower,
包括教堂和钟楼在内
are being physically moved to the new center.
正被原样搬到市中心新址
Sometimes that means literally lifting buildings up,
有些建筑物被直接吊起来
loading them on special trucks and driving them to the new town.
然后用专门的卡车运到小镇新址
And another times that means dismantling buildings brick by brick and then reassembling them
还有些建筑先被逐块拆除 再被重新搭建起来
like they’re part of Lego’s Doomed Swedish Mining Town collection.
就像一款乐高:在劫难逃的瑞典铁矿小镇
Beacuse the unlivable area of Kiruna
由于基律纳的不宜居住区
will expand in a slow, predictable way,
将以可预见的形式缓慢扩张
the relocation is following a similarly slow, predictable rollout.
搬迁也会据此情况 按一定规划缓慢进行
LKAP doesn’t want to pay people to move now
卢基公司不想现在付搬迁费
if their house will be safe for another 15 years.
因为房子可能在15年内都不会塌
So the system is that people are relocated
所以搬迁计划是让居民
about a year before their land will become unsafe.
大概在土地变危险前一年搬走
Although care is taken to move neighborhoods in blocks,
不过照顾到邻里情 社区会成块搬过去
because the only thing worse than having to deal with neighbors
因为比起邻里矛盾
is having to deal with the crushing weight of loneliness.
孤独更令人无法承受
Many residents see the relocation as an opportunity to build a back better.
很多居民把搬迁看做“重建美好家园”的机会
Making a new improved Kiruna with
用矿厂承诺支付的10亿美元
the $1 billion the mine was willing to pay out.
打造一个全新升级的基律纳
After a massive design competition,
经过一场大型设计竞标
a firm called White Arkitekter is overseeing the creation of a new city center.
一家名为White Arkitekter的公司开始监督新城的创建
They will have more meeting places, cafes, and spaces for cultural activities
居民会拥有更多聚会场所 咖啡厅和文化活动空间
all centered around this big new town hall
中央是这个高大的新市政厅
that looks like an Arizona big mansion built on top of a parking garage.
看起来像是建在停车场顶上的亚利桑那州大豪宅
And so far the relocation is going well.
到目前为止 搬迁工作进展顺利
The iron tower clock has been moved
铁塔钟楼搬过去了
and the new town hall had been completed
新的市政厅已经竣工
as has the new rail station.
新的火车站也造好了
All of it raises an interesting question now.
现在 这一切引发出一个有趣的问题
When the town moves, will it still be Kiruna?
搬迁后的小镇还是基律纳吗?
After all, what makes a town a town?
究竟是什么造就了一个小镇?
Is it the people? Is it the buildings?
是市民?是建筑物?
Is it the physical land it stands on?
还是它所在的土地?
I don’t know the answer, but what I do know is this:
我不知道答案是什么 但我知道的是:
(以下为频道广告 略)

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译制信息
视频概述

瑞典著名铁矿小镇基律纳,被搬迁至东部两英里处。原因何在?小镇如何搬迁?且听分解。

听录译者

YXG-98061

翻译译者

云团子

审核员

审核员GEGE

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=osB4AtMDLR0

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