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为什么有些人总迟到

Why some people are always late - BBC REEL

Sorry.
不好意思
Ok, confession time.
好吧 我承认
I’m someone with a slightly annoying tendency to be late.
我有点令人恼火的爱迟到的毛病
Well, slightly annoying for me,
对我来说是有一点
very annoying for everybody else.
对别人来说就是非常恼火了
In fact, this video was supposed to come out in January. Yeah.
其实 本期视频应该在一月份播出的 是这样
But I’m not alone in being punctually challenged.
但不是只有我难以守时
A 2014 YouGov survey found that
一份2014年的舆观调查发现
one in five Americans are late to work at least once a week,
有五分之一美国人 每周至少迟到一次
and actually us Millennials are worst at it.
我们千禧一代最为糟糕
So what’s going on?
这到底是怎么回事呢?
Are some of us just more hardwired to be late than others?
有些人天生比别人更易迟到吗?
This is something author Grace Pacie decided to look into
作家Grace Pacie决定研究一下这个问题
to try and understand her own struggle with punctuality.
以试图理解自己的难题
In terms of personalities, it’s a bell curve.
从个性来说 这是一条钟形曲线
At one end of the scale,
在坐标的一端
there are people I call ‘timekeepers’, who are anxious to be early,
是我称为“守时者”的人 他们很渴望赶早
and at the other end of the scale, I call us ‘timebenders’.
而坐标另一端的人 包括我 我称之为“延时者”
A ‘timebender’ doesn’t like routine.
“延时者”不喜欢照例行事
We don’t like tasks that are familiar, we get bored pretty easily.
我们不喜欢相似的任务 那样我们很容易觉得无聊
We can focus really well when we‘re interested in something,
对某件事产生兴趣时 我们自然会十分投入
and if time is tight we can work really effectively.
如果时间紧迫 我们也会非常高效
If you wanted to walk into an office and pick the ‘timebenders’,
如果你想走进办公室 认出谁是“延时者”
they are the ones with the messy desks,
那些桌面杂乱的人就是了
because they don’t finish one thing before starting another.
因为他们开始做另一件事时 上一件还没做完
Ok,I’m not going to lie, that does sound a lot like me.
老实说 听起来我就是这样的
And quite a lot of this seems to be baked into our personality.
我们的个性里似乎包含了许多这样的特征
So are there particular personality traits that
那么有没有某些特定的个性特征
might be leading us to be regularly late?
导致我们经常迟到的呢?
When it comes to lateness,
说到爱迟到的人
one of their major personality traits is conscientiousness.
其中一条主要个性特征就是尽责
Now, conscientiousness is one of the big five personality traits,
尽责是五大个性特征之一
along with things like agreeableness and extroversion,
其他还包括亲和力 外向等
so it’s really important.
该特征确实十分重要
You can measure it by asking people questions about
你可以问问人们
how tidy they are, how organised they are.
有多整洁 有多条理清晰 来衡量他们的尽责度
One of the questions does concern whether they’re punctual.
其中一个问题的确和他们是否守时有关
You know, all of these things about whether you are a very ordered person.
这些都关乎你是否是个有条理的人
OK, so perhaps I’m just not a very conscientious person,
好吧 也许我只是不太尽责
but I can’t help but feel maybe there’s more going on in my head
但我忍不住想 除此之外
with the way I’m able to keep track of time.
我脑子里可能还有其他什么原因导致我记不住时间
Grace Pacie believes those of us who are ‘timebenders’
Grace Pacie相信 我们这样的“延时者”
experience time in a different way to others.
感受时间的方式和别人不同
We have a different perception of time to most people.
我们对时间的感知与大多数人不同
Every minute isn’t the same length for us.
对我们来说 每一分钟的时长并不相同
Time can speed up and slow down.
时间可以加速 也可以减速
We can get deeply engrossed in something and not be aware of time at all.
我们可以沉浸在某件事中 完全忘记时间
On the other hand, if we have a deadline,
另一方面 如果有一个截止期限
we can work really effectively.
我们真的可以很高效地工作
Interestingly, a 2016 study by Washington University psychologists
有趣的是 华盛顿大学的心理学家在2016年的一项研究中
found something similar.
得出了相似的结论
They looked into our ability to mentally measure time,
他们研究了我们大脑衡量时间的能力
which they described as our Time-Based Prospective Memory.
即大脑基于时间前瞻记忆的能力
In an experiment, the subjects had a set time
在实验中 受试者要在规定时间内完成一项任务
to complete a task and even had a clock they were allowed to check.
甚至提供钟表让他们查看时间
However the tasks were designed to be engrossing,
但这些任务本身需要受试者十分专注
to distract people from clock watching.
以免查看时间分心
Their results were clear:
实验结果很清楚:
Some people were naturally better at estimating the passing of time
有的人天生善于估计用时多久
and using those memories to effectively plan in the future.
并在未来运用那些记忆有效地做计划
What frustrates me, though, is that I’m not late for everything.
但让我沮丧的是 我不是所有事情都迟到
I never miss planes,
我从不错过飞机
I’m pretty good with trains,
坐火车也很准时
but getting my daughter to nursery on time each day
但每天准时送我女儿去幼儿园
or turning up on time for social gatherings is always a struggle.
或聚会时准时露面这种事 总是很难做到
One of the most revealing things that came out of my research
我的研究中最有启发性的是
was that we’re not late for everything.
我们并非所有的事情都迟到
We can be on time when it matters.
事情要紧时 我们会准时的
And what that means to us is that there are consequences for our being late.
而那对于我们来说意味着 迟到是要付出代价的
The times when we slip into our worst ‘timebending’,
当我们陷入最糟的“拖延”的时候
are when there are no firm deadlines and no consequences.
是没有严格的最后期限及严重后果的
And that tends to be for social events.
而这种情况通常是为了社交活动
So when we say I can be on time when it matters,
所以当我们说“事情要紧时我会准时的”
we can be very hurtful to the people in our lives who matter
我们可能会伤害到身边重要的人
because they are the ones that see us as always being late.
因为在他们眼中 我们总是迟到
I think it’s really helpful to recognise the power of deadlines
我觉得 意识到最后期限的作用
and how important it is
(意识到)它们是真实的 外在的 有影响的
that they are real, external and have consequences.
有多么重要
Just asking for a deadline or even suggesting a deadline
只要寻求个最后期限 甚至给自己这么个暗示
puts it out there in the real world,
把它应用到现实世界当中
and therefore we take it seriously.
我们就会因此认真对待这件事
We cannot pluck a deadline from the air and work to it.
我们不能凭空想出一个期限然后按照它来行事
It has to have consequences.
超过期限必须要有个说法
As it’s our friends who often feel the full force of our lateness,
经常感受到我们迟到威力的 是我们的朋友
most friendship groups usually have that person
所以大多数人的朋友圈中
who is known as being ‘the late one’.
通常都有一个“爱迟到的人”
If yours doesn’t, then it’s probably you.
如果你的朋友圈中没有 那么这个人可能是你
However, these social expectations can make the problem worse.
然而 这些社交上的预期会让事情更糟
If you know people are expecting you to be late,
如果你知道人们预料到你会迟到
it’s more likely that you will be.
那你就更有可能迟到
One problem with people who might be known for being late is that
对于大家眼中爱迟到的人来说 有一个问题
they just assume that
他们会认为
something that’s so much a part of their genes and their makeup
如果有什么已经是他们天性的一大部分了
that they don’t even try to kind of correct the behaviour.
他们甚至不会尝试去纠正这种行为
So it’s really in this way that our kind of beliefs about ourselves
所以 正是这样 我们对自己的看法
can become a self-fulfilling prophecy,
可能会变成一个自我应验的预言
and that can actually be quite self-sabotaging when
这实际上是一种“自暴自弃”
with a bit of effort, we might be able to change.
因为其实我们稍加努力 就可能做出改变
And it’s that idea that
有一种观点认为
we can choose to change our personality,
我们可以选择改变我们的个性
that our personality traits aren’t set in stone, destined from birth,
我们的个性不是一成不变 生来注定的
but rather can be malleable,
而是可以塑造的
that’s one of the most exciting recent developments in psychology.
这是心理学近期发展中最令人振奋的发现
For example, some studies have shown
比如 一些研究表明
that I could train myself to be more conscientious.
我可以通过训练让自己更尽责
These studies have tended to last a few weeks to a few months.
这些研究往往持续几周到几个月
They try to get the participants to just do things
他们试图让参与者做一些
like form a detailed schedule for each day
制定详细的每日计划之类的事情
to set aside a time to organise their desk
如果桌面乱 留出时间整理桌面
if that’s messy, their room, if that’s messy.
如果房间乱 留出时间整理房间
You know, all of these things that we know
这些事情 我们了解的
that people with natural,high trait conscientiousness do,
生性十分认真的人会做
and they might lack.
而这些参与者可能不会做的事
And what happens is that just by practicing those things
结果发现 只要通过练习
and being a bit more conscious about when you do them,
并且做这些事情时多一些意识
it just forms these kinds of mental habits.
就会形成诸如此类的思维习惯
It just helps to retrain the brain a little bit.
只要稍微重新训练一下大脑就有用
So, being a ‘timebender’ is, to some degree,
因此 在某种程度上 作为“延时者”
part of our personality,
是我们个性的一部分
and some of us might be better at
我们中的一些人
mentally keeping track of time than others.
或许比其他人更擅长用大脑记录时间
However, that doesn’t mean that we have to accept that
然而 并不是说我们就得接受
we will forver be ‘the late one’.
自己永远是迟到的那一个
By setting ourselves meaningful deadlines with consequences,
通过给自己设定有意义 有后果的最后期限
and by retraining certain behaviours
并且对特定的行为进行再训练
we can alter our personality
我们可以改变个性
and hopefully improve our punctuality.
并且有希望变得更守时
Oh, damn, sorry, I ve got to…
哎呀 糟糕 我快迟到了

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视频概述

迟到是天性吗?我们是否可以改掉迟到的习惯?快来寻找答案吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

杨麦丝

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uk-JuzGlSgs

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