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镜面异构体~可能很邪恶哦 – 译学馆
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镜面异构体~可能很邪恶哦

Why Some Molecules Have Evil Twins

嗨 我是分钟地球的艾伦
Hi, this is Allen from Minute Earth,
这是一个普通的非处方鼻血管收缩药中
and this is the chemical formula for the active ingredient
活性成分的化学式
in a common over-the-counter nasal decongestant.
这是一种极其危险的街头毒品的化学式
And this is the chemical formula for an extremely dangerous street drug.
它们有相同的沸点 相同的分子质量
They have the same boiling point, the same molecular mass,
由完全相同的元素组成
and are made up of the exact same elements,
几乎完全相同的结构
in almost the exact same structure.
这两种化学物质互为镜像 称为对映异构体
These two chemicals are mirror images known as enantiomers.
他们有点像你的左右手
They’re sort of like your left and right hands,
如果你的右手是邪恶的话
if your right hand was evil.
和你的右手只能戴上右手手套
And for the same reason your right hand only fits into a right-handed glove,
你的左手只能戴上左手手套一样
and your left hand only fits into a left-handed glove,
每个对映体只适用于相应的受体
each enantiomer fits only into its corresponding receptor.
当鼻腔喷雾分子的受体被激活时
When the receptors for the nasal spray molecules are activated,
它们释放出一种能帮助打开鼻腔的神经传递信号
they send out a neurotransmission that helps open the nasal passages.
但是当街头毒品分子的受体入场时
But when the receptors for the street drug molecules get filled,
由此产生的神经传递 会在短期内会迸发出炽烈的快感和欲望
the resulting neurotransmissions cause a spurt of euphoria and aphrodisia in the near term,
长时期则会导致上瘾与脑损伤
and addiction and brain damage in the long term.
成千上万的其他分子都有这种左手性(左旋) 右手性(右旋)的异构体
Thousands of other molecules also have left- and right-handed versions.
右旋青霉胺能结合在血液中的有毒重金属
Right-handed penicillamine binds to toxic heavy metals in the bloodstream
并通过小便将其排出体外
and lets you pee them out.
而左旋青霉胺本身有极高的毒性
On the other hand, left-handed penicillamine is incredibly toxic itself
它会阻断身体对维生素B6的使用
since it blocks the body’s ability to use Vitamin B6
从而导致你的大脑失灵
and causes your brain to malfunction.
左旋香芹酮使东西闻起来像薄荷
Left-handed carvone makes things smell like mint.
而右旋香芹酮会使东西闻起来像甘草
Right-handed carvone makes things smell like licorice.
尽管镜像分子的结构非常相似
Despite mirror molecules’ incredibly similar structures,
其互相转化非常困难
you can’t just easily convert one into the other.
为了使鼻腔喷雾剂变成冰毒
To turn nasal spray into meth,
你先要打破非常牢固的共价键
you’d need to first break its very strong covalent bonds,
这需要危险的试剂和昂贵的高压实验室设备
and that requires dangerous reagents and expensive, high-pressure lab equipment.
互联网的阴暗角落里
But the dark corners of the internet are filled with
充斥着人们试图通过鼻腔喷雾制备冰毒
descriptions of people trying and miserably failing to get meth
却惨遭失败的故事 当然他们也就没法体验冰毒带来的嗨翻天的感受了
and its resulting high from nasal sprays.
生产这些喷雾剂的公司
Companies that produce those sprays have even changed
甚至改变了包装上活性成分的名称
the name of the active ingredient on the package
试图阻止这些不懂化学的人
to try to discourage these would-be Walter Whites
成为下一个沃特·怀特(绝命毒师主人公)
who can’t get their chemistry … right.
嗨 我是凯特!
Hi, it’s Kate!
想看这个视频的幕后制作的话
For a behind the scenes look at how this video was made,
可以查看视频描述中的链接
check out the link in the video description.
如果你是一个对映体 化学或科学爱好者
And if you’re a fan of enantiomers, chemistry,
并且想为科学的未来挺身而出
or science in general and want to stand up for the future of science,
那就考虑一下在4月22日
consider taking to the streets on April 22
世界各地的科学游行举行时走上街头吧
at one of the many Marches for Science around the world.
或者 如果你愿意 你可以用其他方式来表达你的想法
Or, if you prefer, you can make your voice heard in other ways.
不管你决定做什么
Whatever you decide to do,
我们感谢你的帮助 使这个世界成为好奇之人的欢迎之地
we appreciate your help making the world a welcoming place for curious people.

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视频概述

一种鼻腔喷雾活性成分,跟它沸点相同,分子量相同,组成元素相同,结构类似,就像互为左右手一般的另一物质,却是冰毒!怕不怕!不用担心,他们之间互相转化可没那么容易,不信?去百度一下吧!看看有多少人在这上栽了跟头!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

HJF再来三碗饭

审核员

金鱼汤

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OR2AQS-8CWE

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