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为什么日食是令人敬畏的? – 译学馆
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为什么日食是令人敬畏的?

Why Solar Eclipses Are Awesome

整个世界都在讨论天文学 这种事儿并不常见
It’s not often that the whole world is talking about astronomy.
很多时候 只有我们这样的太空呆子在讨论
A lot of the time, it’s just space nerds like us.
但日食 尤其是横跨整个美国的日食
But a solar eclipse, especially one that travels across
肯定能让所有人关注
the entire face of the United states, is definitely going to do it.
从现在起的一个月后 在8月21日
Just one month from now, on August 21,
美国将经历从1979年起到今天的第一次日全食
the United States will experience its first total solar eclipse since 1979.
所以对很多人来说 包括我
So for a lot of people, including me,
这会是我们第一次不用出国就能看到日食的机会
this will be your first opportunity to see one without having to leave the country.
人们称其为“美国大日食”
People are calling it the Great American Eclipse,
因为日全食的路径只经过美国
since the path of the total solar eclipse only passes through the US,
一路上经过相邻的48个州
and cuts all the way across the contiguous 48 states.
在过去的几个世纪里 日食为科学家们提供了很多关于太阳的知识
Over the last couple of centuries, solar eclipses have taught scientists a lot
以及宇宙运行的普遍规律
about the Sun, and about the way the universe works in general.
但你没必要因为看到中午的太阳突然变黑
But you don’t need to be a scientist to be captivated by watching the Sun
而想成为一名科学家
just suddenly go dark in the middle of the day.
如果你想亲自体验一下日食
If you want to experience this eclipse for yourself,
你只需要出现在对的时间 对的地点
you just have to be in the right place at the right time.
当月球运行到地球与太阳之间
A solar eclipse happens when the Moon goes between the Earth and the Sun,
并在地球表面投下阴影时 就发生了日食
casting a shadow across the Earth’s surface.
从我们的视角来看 仿佛太阳被挡住了一样
From our perspective, it looks like the Sun is being blocked out.
日全食发生在当地日月组合得非常完美时
A total solar eclipse happens when this arrangement is perfect:
月球正好在地球与太阳之间
the Moon is directly between the Earth and Sun,
十分接近地球 在短时间里完全挡住了太阳
and it’s close enough to Earth to completely block out the Sun for a short time.
这对于观看者来说非常令人激动 但对科学家 同样会获益匪浅
That’s exciting for anyone to watch, but for scientists, it’s also incredibly useful.
当月球遮住太阳 我们可以看到日晕
When the Moon covers the Sun, we can see the Sun’s corona
即环绕太阳的气体层
the layer of gas that surrounds the Sun.
通常 很难分辨得出日晕
Normally, it’s a lot harder to separate what’s happening in the corona
和太阳的其他部分
from what’s happening with the rest of the Sun.
因为太阳实在是太明亮了……
Because the sun is pretty bright…
在日食期间研究日晕 研究者们学到了很多关于
By studying the corona during eclipses, researchers have learned a ton about
日晕的构成 运作方式 甚至它令人惊讶的高温的知识
what it’s made of, how it works, and even its surprisingly high temperature.
温度的发现是在1879年的日食时
The temperature discovery happened during the 1879 eclipse,
当我们找到了自认为的新元素的时候
when we found what we thought was a brand new element.
结果 它只是超级热的气态铁
Turns out, it was just super hot gaseous iron.
能让铁成为气态 意味着日晕温度肯定
For iron to be a gas, that meant the corona must have been way hotter
比太阳表面温度还要高 大概高出数百万摄氏度
than the Sun’s surface — like, millions of degrees hotter.
这简直太出乎意料了 大概150年以后
That was totally unexpected, and almost 150 years later,
我们仍不知道日晕为何温度这么高
we still don’t know why the corona is so hot.
明年将修建一座太空探测器来找出原因
We’re launching a probe next year to help figure it out.
但 我们从日食中学到的最重要的事可能是
But probably the most important thing we ever learned from an eclipse
在1919年 日全食发生在南美洲和非洲时
was in 1919, when a total solar eclipse over South America and Africa
第一次证实了爱因斯坦的广义相对论
provided the first proof of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.
爱因斯坦最伟大的预言之一是从我们站在地球上的角度看去 引力能使光弯曲
One of Einstein’s greatest predictions was that gravity can bend light,
太阳有足够强的引力
and the Sun has a strong enough gravitational pull
使光线从恒星后面弯曲
that it should bend the light from the stars just behind it,
从我们地球上的视角来看 它们在天空中稍稍移动了位置
shifting their position a little in the sky from our perspective here on Earth.
但通常 当然 你在天空中看不到接近太阳的星星
But normally, of course, you can’t see the stars next to the Sun in the sky,
因为太阳太亮了
because the sun is very bright.
所以科学家们无法确定是否它能使光线弯曲
So scientists couldn’t check if it was actually bending starlight until
直到1919年的日食 当时 太阳相当的暗 以至于能看见周围的星星
the 1919 eclipse, while the Sun was dark enough to see the stars around it.
通过测量日食周围 行星的位置
By measuring the positions of stars right next to the eclipse,
他们发现星光果真会因太阳引力而弯曲
they found that the light from the stars was being bent by the Sun’s gravity.
更棒的是:行星位置完美地契合爱因斯坦的等式
Even better: the positions of the stars fit perfectly with Einstein’s equations.
这就是月球运行到太阳前面的方式 几乎一个世纪前的
And that’s how the Moon moving in front of the Sun almost a century ago
被证实的理论 如今仍被用来描述许多宇宙现象
proved the theory that we still use to describe a lot of the universe.
所以从科学的角度来看 人类有很多理由
So there are plenty of reasons for humans to be interested in eclipses
去关注日食现象
from a scientific perspective.
而且……它们实在是太酷了
But also … they’re just really freakin’ cool.
如果你想亲自体验一下日食
If you want to see this eclipse for yourself,
首先得找到适合观看的地方
you’ll first have to get to a place where it’ll be visible.
(这样)你就可以看到部分的日食
You’ll be able to see the partial eclipse
太阳的一部分被遮住 但不是全部
where a smaller part of the Sun is blocked, but not the whole thing
加拿大 美国中部 欧洲西部一些地方都可以观看
from Canada, Central America, and some parts of Western Europe.
但如果你想看日全食 8月21日 你得把自己放到
But if you want to see the total eclipse, you’ll have to put yourself somewhere
日食途径美国的某个地方
along that slice across the US, aka the path of totality, on August 21.
整个日食将持续大约两个半小时
The whole eclipse lasts about two and a half hours,
即使是日全食也不会超过两分半钟
although totality is no more than about two and a half minutes.
天空中月球与太阳一样大
It is weird that the moon and the sun are
真是好奇怪啊!
almost exactly the same size in the sky!
多么美妙的巧合啊!
Just a coincidence!
完美的时间点取决于你在何处 因为日食会沿着其路径移动
The exact timing depends where you are, because the eclipse will move
就像地球的公转以及月球的自转一样
Along the path of totality as the Earth rotates and the Moon moves in its orbit.
如果你在奥尔良 日食会发生在早上9点
If you’re in Oregon, the whole show will start around 9 am,
如果你在南卡罗莱纳州 会出现在下午1点
and if you’re in South Carolina, it’s more like 1pm.
简介里详细地介绍了
There’s a link in the description where you can get
观看日食的地点
exact details for your location.
即使你在对的时间里出现在对的地方
Even if you’re in the right place at the right time,
你仍需要一些安全措施去观看日食
you’ll still need to take some safety precautions to watch the eclipse.
直接看太阳的话 结果你们懂的
Looking directly at the Sun, I assume we all know this,
会造成眼睛受损甚至失明 因为你的眼睛
can cause eye damage or even blindness, because your eyes
并不具备承受如此强光刺激的能力
just aren’t equipped to handle that level of light intensity.
很多时候伤害是无痛的
And a lot of the time the damage is painless,
人们甚至不会意识到伤害的发生
and people don’t even realize it’s happening.
所以观看日食最安全的方式 是通过一个物体将
So the safest way to watch the eclipse is through something that
图像投射到其他东西上 比如针孔投影仪
Projects the image onto something else, like a pinhole projector.
如果你想直接观看
If you want to look at it directly,
有很多人都在卖日食眼镜
there are lots of people out there selling eclipse viewing glasses,
但有件事:如果它们有一丁点儿瑕疵
but here’s the thing: if they have a tiny imperfection,
或者不符合标准……结果很糟糕的
or aren’t made to the right standards … that could be really bad.
因为 重申下 你或许不会意识到眼睛正遭受伤害
Because, again, you might not even realize that your eyes are being damaged.
在每次日食后 都有人进医院
After every solar eclipse, people end up in hospitals
因为他们的视力开始变得奇怪
because their vision starts to go weird,
即使在日食时并没什么感觉
even though they didn’t feel anything during the eclipse.
所以 请小心
So, be careful.
确保你的日食眼镜符合最新标准
Make sure any viewing glasses you get meet the latest standards.
很多的都不符合标准
A lot of them don’t.
如果你刚好在日全食的路径上
You can watch the eclipse with the naked eye during that tiny window of totality,
你可以在日全食时 用肉眼观看
if you happen to have gotten yourself to the path of totality,
但必须确保日全食结束前 戴上眼镜
but you have to make sure to have the glasses back on before totality ends.
如果你不小心错过了 好消息是
If you miss it, the good news is that
下一次日食时 你不必等待很长时间
you won’t have to wait nearly as long the next time around:
在2024年 北美洲将有另一次日全食
there’ll be another total solar eclipse in North America in 2024.
但如果你成功看到了全食
But if you do make it to the path of totality,
祈祷吧 真是美好的一天呀 准备好看一场惊人的表演吧
and — fingers crossed — it’s a clear day, get ready for an incredible show.
如果你正在寻找安全的方式观看日食
If you’re looking for a safe way to see the eclipse,
我们为你准备了特别的SciShow 针孔投影仪卡片
we’ve got you covered with a special SciShow pinhole projector card!
你要做的就是在中间戳个洞
All you have to do is poke a hole in the middle,
拿一张普通的纸来投射图像
grab a plain piece of paper to project the image onto,
调整卡片与纸之间的距离
and adjust the distance between the card and the paper
直到你能清楚的看见日食的图像
until you see a clear image of the eclipse.
小孔如同照相机的镜头
The tiny hole acts like the lens in a camera,
聚焦光线 使其穿过 以至于你能在后面的纸上
focusing the light that passes through so that you can see the image
看见图像
on the paper behind it.
你能在dftba.com/scishow得到你的SciShow针孔投影仪
You can get your SciShow pinhole projector at dftba.com/scishow!

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视频概述

关于日食的小知识。关于夏天热死人的太阳的小知识,希望大家看的开心。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Sallyzhe

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIUMcCH0pug

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