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为何许多情景喜剧有相似点 – 译学馆
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为何许多情景喜剧有相似点

Why so many sitcoms look the same

《欢乐一家亲》《老友记》《欢乐俏女郎》
Frasier and Friends and Carolines
《墨菲布朗》《我爱露西》
in the City and Murphy Brown and I Love Lucy all have
这些情景剧都有一个共同点
one thing in common.
[笑声]
HA!
不 这个共同点并不是指观众的笑声
No, it’s not all the audience laughter.
而是它们看起来……都有些相似
They all kind of look…the same.
分镜头和灯光效果都是差不多的
And the shots and lighting all are kinda thesame.
我们已经非常熟悉它的拍摄角度和灯光效果了
These are three camera sitcoms, with very familiar camera angles and lighting.
这种打灯方法后来也在《凡人琐事》中应用
And the guy who perfected the style of light
将这方式完善的是谁?
that would one day shine upon Urkel ’ s face?
“是我吗?”
“Did I do that?”
这个人就是卡尔·弗洛恩德
It’s Karl Freund.
是他最初开创了……这种风格
The same guy who made…this.
卡尔是1927年经典电影
He was the German cinematographer
《大都市》幕后的德国摄影师
behind the look of “ Metropolis,” the 1927 classic.
事实上存在着一个很好的理由
And there was actually a good reason
使这个天才坚信 这样的转变
that a genius decided that going from this
是值得他赌上自己职业生涯的挑战
to this was a challenge worth betting hiscareer on.
下面要讲到电影史了
This right here is cinematic history.
它始于1924年的《最卑贱的人》
It’s from 1924’s “The Last Laugh.”
在这部电影里
For this movie,
卡尔·弗洛恩德发明了可能是历史上的首个推拉镜头
Karl Freund invented what was probably the first dolly shot in history
也就是跟随推车或者卡车移动的镜头
– that ’ s when a camera moves on a cart or a truck.
当弗洛恩德从德国搬到好莱坞
When Freund moved from Germany to Hollywood,
他继续创造着视觉上的杰作
he continued to make visual masterpieces from
从导演最初的《木乃伊》 到拍摄《吸血鬼》
directing the original “The Mummy,” tobeing the cinematographer on “Dracula.”
其中《吸血鬼》的场景非常具有代表性
This scene from Dracula is emblematic of his work,
光和影成为了场景中
with shadows and light serving as powerful
强有力的表现工具
tools in the scene.
凭借着1937年的电影《大地》
With 1937 ’ s “ The Good Earth,
他赢得了奥斯卡最佳摄影奖
” he won an Academy Award for Cinematography.
弗洛恩德的艺术源自于丰富的想象力和鲜明的对比
Freund ’ s art came from powerful imagery and stark contrasts,
像下面这个《大都会》里的场景
like in this scene from Metropolis.
《我爱露西》也很不错 只是略显单调
I Love Lucy looked good – but pretty flat.
这就是为什么他认为这部剧可能是一种突破的看法
That ’ s why it ’ s so surprising that he thought
如此让人震惊的原因了
it could be a breakthrough.
我们知道弗洛恩德从拍摄电影
We know Freund was nervous about making the transition from movies like this
到在观众面前拍影视剧会感到紧张
to television filmed in front of a live audience.
传统的电影灯光无法适用于那样的环境和
Traditional movie lighting wouldn’t work in that environment and
紧张的拍摄日程
on a tight TV schedule.
原因如下
Here’s why.
舞台灯光是很酷
Dramatic lighting is cool.
但是如果我像拍情景剧一样移动
But if I move, the way people move in sitcoms,
我的面部暗淡同时也错过镜头
I lose the light and the shot.
而且在现场观众面前 你也无法
You also can’t reset and move that light
重新布置或是移动灯光
in front of a live audience.
拍摄场景也需要充足的灯光
The shot also has to be lit so that it can be shown
以便同时被三个镜头拍摄
by three different cameras at the same time.
这样的挑战吸引了弗洛恩德
That challenge appealed to Freund, and,
先不说笑声音轨
laugh track jokes aside
他写到现场演播室观众有着
he wrote that a live studio audience had
“能够激发演员的惊奇作用”
“an astonishing effect in stimulating performers.”
之前也有过现场录音的实验 但弗洛恩德完善了它
There were earlier experiments with live taping,but Freund perfected it.
你可以看到他是如何做到的
You can see how he did it
通过《我爱露西》的第一集还有这张现场拍摄照片你可以看到
in I Love Lucy ’ s very first episodes and in this on set picture.
首先 他放了三个摄像头在他的小车上——
First, he put three cameras on his trademark dollies –
这也是为什么他们称其为三位摄像机系统情景喜剧
which is why these are called three camera sitcoms.
通常有一个摄影机在中间作为广角镜头
Usually it has one camera in the middle, for wide shots,
两个侧面的特写镜头
and two on the sides for closeups.
你可以从这里的图片中看到
You can see it here,
也可以从他标记摄影机位置的胶带看出来
as well as in the tape he used to mark the cameras ’ positions.
这就是工作原理——让摄像机持续移动
This is how it worked — letting cameras move
而不需要重新打光
on the fly, without relighting.
摄影师全程戴耳机以协调沟通
Cameramen coordinated at all times using headsets and
这些耳机连向控制室
they were connected to the control room.
为使拍摄场景灯光充足
To light this set up,
弗洛恩德用了这样的网格顶灯 甚至在
Freund used an overhead grid of lights like these and even put floor
每个摄影机的底部安装的灯使演员面部灯光均匀
lights on the bottom of each camera to flatteractors’ faces.
这个?
This?
这个拍摄手法与《我爱露西》不同
This is not like I Love Lucy.
他同时把麦克风布置在
He also placed microphones
场景的四周以免成为阻碍
around the set so they wouldn ’ t get in the way.
露西和埃赛尔可以在起居室里跳来跳去
Lucy and Ethel could bounce around the living room
而不用特意停下去录音
without needing to stop taping
或者停止观众的笑声
or stop the laughter.
所有这些使他们可以保持严格的拍摄日程
All of this let them keep a strict shooting schedule
且最大程度减少后期的补拍
with minimum reshoots after the show.
对于弗洛恩德来说 所有这些视觉工作
For Freund, all this visual work was
都是为声音服务的
in service of making one sound possible.
如今的电影拍摄仍然在用这种方法
This is still kind of how it’s done today.
弗洛恩德的技巧为三位摄像机情景喜剧创建了一个模板
Freund ’ s tricks established a template
而这个模板一直沿用至今
for the three camera sitcom that ’ s still in use today
可以从《沃克斯》——第一个真正有人在拍摄场景
As you can see it in “ Vox ” –
工作的情景喜剧看出也沿用了这个模板
the first workplace sitcom where people actually work.
正如你所见
Anyway, as you can see,
迪恩进入房间的镜头是不需要重新拍摄的
there’s no need to relight Dean as he crosses the room in this scene
只不过被艾希莉无视了
only to be ignored by Ashley,
因为她在忙着工作
because she’s too busy working.
弗洛恩德的拍摄技术也有缺点
Freund ’ s techniques did have drawbacks,
有些缺点也存在于现在的情景剧中
some of those drawbacks are visible in today ’ s sitcoms,
有些则是他工作的时代特有的
and some are specific to the time in which he worked.
例如他需要为演员画上暗色的妆
He had to put darker makeup on his actors
以免曝光过度
so they wouldn ’ t be blown out by the lights
——而且你可以从这里露西和埃塞尔的样子看出来
– and you can see it on Lucy and Ethel here.
在这个场景里 她们很有可能穿着色彩柔和的衣服
In this scene, they were probably wearing pastel clothing as well,
因为所有东西的色彩不能过于明亮
because nothing could be too bright
电影拍摄能使所有的东西产生更鲜明的对比
film-processing give everything higher contrast than normal
即便今天的三位摄像机系统情景喜剧
Even today the three camera sitcom has a
看起来也没有什么新奇之处——可以参见
less adventurous look — as you can see
AJ和艾什利阅读邮件
as AJ and Ashley go through all their unread emails.
这种拍摄方式也会影响到焦点
It affects focus, too –
对比一下《生活大爆炸》和《小谢尔顿》
look at the Big Bang Theory next to its prequel, Young Sheldon.
前者是三位摄像机系统情景喜剧
Big Bang Theory, the 3 camera sitcom,
看起来跟《我爱露西》相似
looks pretty much like I Love Lucy.
很少或者暗淡的阴影 所有东西都在焦点里
There are very few, or faint shadows, everything ’ s in focus,
拍摄角度也是相似的
and the camera angles are familiar.
后者则是单镜头 像电影一样
Young Sheldon is single camera, like a movie,
光亮和阴影同时存在
and that allows it to have light and shadow
还有非常棒的模糊背景
and a gorgeous blurred background.
但是弗洛恩德的改革确实
But Freund ’ s innovation did help a
提升了现场观众–—和我们——观看《老友记》
live audience — and us — see Friends,
《宋飞正传》和《欢乐一家亲》的体验
Seinfeld and Frasier.
他在1953年写到:
As he wrote in 1953:
“很高兴能有机会参与《我爱露西》成功的拍摄”
“ To have had the opportunity to play a part in the success of the I Love
“此剧现已荣登电视剧榜首”
Lucy show, which is now the No.1 rated Television
“这证明我为克服种种障碍”
show in the nation assures me the efforts
“所做出的努力并没有白费”
to overcome the handicaps have not been invain.”
卡尔·弗洛恩德是一个天才
Karl Freund was a genius.
有时候即使天才也有幽默感
And sometimes even genius has a sense of humor.

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视频概述

此文讲述了情景剧的一些通用拍摄方法以及卡尔·弗洛恩德做出的一些影响重大的变革。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

張張張

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQvjD2-p98U

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