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为什么这么多陨石会来自同一个地方? – 译学馆
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为什么这么多陨石会来自同一个地方?

Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place

大家好 我是分钟地球的艾米莉
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
在漫长的岁月里 组成火星和木星之间主要小行星带的数以百万的陨石
Over the ages, the millions or so rocks that make up the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
将大大小小的宇宙碎片撞击到地球上
have sent chunks of space debris large and small crashing into Earth
在分析大量的陨石之后 我们发现了一些十分不可思议的东西
And after analyzing a lot of these meteorites, we’ve discovered something really weird
超过三分之一的陨石有着同样的化学成分
More than a third of them have the same chemical signature
这表明它们是从同一个小行星里脱离的
suggesting that they’ve broken off from a single asteroid.
通过使用特殊的望远镜来观察小行星的矿物组成
By using special telescopes to look at the mineral makeup of asteroids
我们相信我们已经确定了这种物质的身份 我们称它为Hebe
we think we’ve identified the culprit, known as Hebe.
Hebe跟其它小行星带的小行星比起来相当大
Hebe is pretty big compared to other asteroids in the asteroid belt
但它仍然只占总质量的一小部分
but it still only makes up a tiny fraction of the total mass.
它常被许多流星体撞击
And it’s been in lots of meteoroid-making collisions
其中包括一次足够猛烈的撞击 以至于它破损并形成一个名为Jebe的巨大的矮胖陨石
including one violent enough that it might have broken off a huge chunk of rock called Jebe
但是许多其他小行星也存在许多破损的地方
but lots of other asteroidshave also been in lots of wrecks.
而由于Hebe处于一个在小行星带空带边缘的位置
Instead, Hebe owes its unique status to its location at the edge of an empty band in the
它拥有独特的重要身份
asteroid belt.
当在这条带的两侧的小行星围绕太阳转的时候 他们通过木星得到一个小的
As asteroids on either side of this band orbit the sun, they pass Jupiter and get a little
额外的万有引力 但是那些引力来自每个轨道的不同位置 所以随着时间的流逝
extra gravitational pull, but that pull comes at a different place with each orbit, so it
它几乎是恰处于平均的状态
kind of just averages out over time.
但是任何在空的轨道里面的岩石都以三倍于
But any rock that finds itself inside the empty band orbits the sun exactly three times
木星的速度绕太阳运行 这使得岩石在运行轨道中的特定的两个地方
faster than Jupiter does, which brings it closest to Jupiter at precisely the same two
离木星最近 一次又一次
places in its orbit, over and over and over and over and over and over again….this so-called
这就叫做“轨道共振” 这种现象扭曲了小行星轨道的形状
“orbital resonance” distorts the shape of the asteroid’s orbit, and eventually it destabilizes
最终使其不稳定并成为可能与地球交叉运行的轨道
into a potentially Earth-crossing path.
与其他小行星相比 Hebe向木星提供更多能够利用的岩石
Hebe feeds more space rocks into Jupiter’s reach than any other asteroid, thereby sending
因此向我们发射的岩石也比其他任何行星都要多
more rocks rocketing toward us than anything else.
幸运的是 他们中的大多数都没有砸中我们 比如那个拥有广岛原子弹的10万倍破坏力的陨石
Fortunately, most of them miss us, like the one with 100,000 times more destructive power
这个陨石在2012年从我们旁边飞过 只与我们相距20个月球距离而已
than the Hiroshima bomb, which flew by us in 2012, just 20 moon distances away.
但在1976年 我们就没那么幸运了 当时 一辆丰田凯美瑞大小的巨石
But we weren’t so lucky in 1976, when a boulder the size of a Toyota Camry crashed
撞到了中国北方的一块田地 又或是在1868年 10吨豌豆大小的陨石散落在
into a field in northern China, or in 1868, when ten tons of pea-sized meteorites peppered
波兰东北部
northeastern Poland.
科学家们正在研究一种方法 如果陨石与地球发生碰撞 我们可以用某种方法使它转向
Scientists are researching ways that we could divert a really big one if it were on a collision
但是我们的反世界末日计划还需要几十年的时间才能实现
course with Earth, but our anti-armageddon plan is still decades away from realization,
因此巨型陨石仍有时间将我们变成恐龙
so there’s still time for a mega-meteorite to turn us into dinosaurs.
陨石的故事就讲到这里
It’s enough to give you the Heebie-Jeebies.
大家好 这个视频是由在线学习社区Skillshare赞助的
Hi guys, this video was sponsored by the online learning community skillshare.
等一下再介绍他们 而现在 我想先让你们认识一下
More about them in a second, but first, I wanna let you know about a new book by our
由我的朋友豪尔赫·可汗写的新书 他为这个视频做了漂亮的插图 这本书就叫做
friend Jorge Cham, who did the gorgeous illustrations for this video.The book is called We Have
我们完全不知道 其中豪尔赫和物理学家丹尼尔·怀特森探索了一些有关我们宇宙的
No Idea, and in it Jorge and physicist Daniel Whiteson explore some of the biggest mysteries
巨大的谜团 比如地球不断受到难以置信的高能粒子的撞击
about our universe, like: Earth is constantly getting hit by incredibly high-energy particles,
但是没有人知道它们是从哪里来的 或者是什么宇宙事件
but no one has any clue where they’re coming from, or even what kind of cosmic event could
可以产生它们
be producing them.
而且如果你想学习如何制作像乔治那样的漫画 你应该去看看Skillshare
And, if you want to learn how to make comics like Jorge’s, you should check out Skillshare.
Skillshare拥有超过15000个来自行业专家的入门课程 比如
Skillshare features more than 15,000 how-to classes from industry experts, like how to
如何与萨拉的涂鸦的作者一起创建网络漫画 还有和赛斯·高汀学习
create webcomics with the creator of Sarah’s Scribbles and how to do Modern Marketing with
现代市场营销
Seth Godin.
前500名观众可以得到Skillshare的两个月的免费试用
The first 500 MinuteEarth viewers can get a free two-month trial with Skillshare by
只要你们点击下面的描述框中的链接
clicking the link in the description box below.
谢谢Skillshare!
Thanks Skillshare!

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视频概述

陨石的成分为何如此相似?我们会像恐龙一样因为被陨石撞击而灭绝吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Oasis

审核员

WeiRan

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kygTzIXmqfM

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