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聪明人为什么会做傻事? – 译学馆
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聪明人为什么会做傻事?

Why smart people make stupid mistakes | BBC Ideas

According to author David Robson,
作家大卫·罗伯森认为
we’re not always as smart as we think we are.
我们有时没有自认为的那么聪明
Psychological research suggests that greater intelligence,
心理研究表明 更高的智商
education and expertise might actually amplify our errors.
更高等的教育和更多的技能或许会放大我们的过错
《为什么聪明人会做傻事?》
1 认知吝啬
Consider this question.
想一下这个问题
How many animals of each species did Moses take on the ark?
摩西将每个物种带了多少只到方舟上?
The answer of course is zero.
答案当然是零
因为建造方舟的并不是摩西 而是诺亚
But many intelligent people get this wrong.
但很多聪明人都错了
They are cognitive misers, they are capable of intelligent reasoning
他们是认知吝啬者 尽管很擅长推理
but they don’t apply that brain power effectively,
但没有有效利用脑力
instead relying too much on their gut feelings.
而是过多地依赖自己的直觉
Cognitive miserliness can cause us to be swayed
认知吝啬会让我们摇摆不定
by irrelevant information and our own feelings.
用无关信息和自我感受干扰我们
For example, leading us to poor financial decisions
例如 在买房子时
when buying a house.
会使我们做出糟糕的决定
It can also explain why apparently intelligent people
这还可以解释为什么聪明人
can fall for fake news if they rely too much on the gist
要是过分注意要点而不是细节
rather than the details of a statement.
就会相信假新闻
2 动机推理
Sometimes, thanks to the emotional pull of an argument,
有时候 由于争吵时的情绪作用
we think in a very one-sided manner.
我们会以非常片面的方式思考
So Arthur Conan Doyle is the perfect example of motivated reasoning.
阿瑟·柯南·道尔就是一个动机式推理的典型例子
Now he was obviously an incredibly intelligent man –
很显然他是个非常聪明的人
he was a doctor and also wrote all of the Sherlock Holmes books
他是一名医生 并创作了福尔摩斯全集
where he really shows a very clear understanding
他在书中展现了关于
of what logical deduction should be.
“逻辑推理应该是什么”的清晰认识
But in his own private life,
但私底下
Arthur Conan Doyle was not nearly so rational.
阿瑟·柯南·道尔并没有那么理性
He had a very strong emotional belief in spiritualism
他对唯心论有着很强的精神信仰
and often visited fraudulent mediums.
他还经常拜访有欺诈性的灵媒
Now, Arthur Conan Doyle’s friends
那时阿瑟·柯南·道尔的朋友们
which included Harry Houdini the illusionist,
包括魔术师哈里·胡迪尼在内
often tried to persuade him that he was wrong
都想说服他错了
and to show him the evidence
并给他提供了证据
that he was being scammed by these people,
说他被那些人给骗了
but Arthur Conan Doyle just didn’t believe their arguments.
但阿瑟·柯南·道尔就是不相信他们的论证
So for instance he would try to bring in
比如 他会试图引入
the latest physics on the electromagnetic field
有关电磁场的最新物理学进展
to explain how fairies might exist
来解释精灵是存在的
but just appeared in another wavelength.
只是在其他波长下才能被看到
You may not believe in fairies
你或许不相信有精灵
but motivated reasoning can lead to polarized political views.
但动机性推理会导致政治观点两极分化
It may also allow you to rationalise poor business ventures or a failing love affair.
它还可能让你合理化失败的投资或恋情
3 专业知识的诅咒
You may hope that education or professional expertise
你或许希望教育或专业技能
would protect you from error
能让你不再犯错
but these can also backfire.
但往往事与愿违
After years of experience in a job,
工作几年后
experts for instance may begin to act on auto-pilot
专家可能会使用“全自动系统”
and that automatic decision-making can sometimes miss vital information.
但这种“全自动决策系统”有时会忽略重要信息
This may explain a terrible case from 2004
这就解释了2004年的一个可怕事件
when a man called Brandon Mayfield
当时有个人叫布兰登•梅菲尔德
was accused of conducting the Madrid bombings.
被指控制造了马德里爆炸案
Now Brandon Mayfield had not left the USA during that time
但那段时间布兰登•梅菲尔德未曾离开美国
and yet the FBI’s fingerprint examiners
联邦调查局的指纹检测员
still accused him of the crime.
仍指控他犯了罪
The Spanish police had found a fingerprint
因为西班牙警方找到了一枚指纹
on a plastic bag near the scene of the crime.
就在犯罪现场附近的一个塑料包裹上
Now the FBI had put that into their computers
联邦调查局将指纹录进电脑
and they had found about 20 candidates
发现了20位嫌疑人
who might have made the match.
都可能与该指纹匹配
And when they looked at Brandon Mayfield’s,
当看到布兰登•梅菲尔德的指纹时
they were sure that they were identical.
他们确定这两者是匹配的
Yet when you look at the fingerprints
但仔细观察两者的指纹
there are actually some very important differences
还是有些关键的不同点
that they had completely missed
只是完全被检测人员忽视了
but thanks to the curse of expertise,
由于技能的“诅咒”
they were susceptible to confirmation bias.
他们容易受到确认偏误的影响
So they only saw the bits that matched
所以只看到了那些相匹配的部分
and were completely blind to the bits that didn’t match.
而对不匹配的部分视若无睹
4 过多人才效应
Sometimes smart people can act stupidly
有时聪明人做傻事
thanks to the people who are around us.
是因为我们身边的人
A sense of conflict and competition within a group
群体内部的矛盾和竞争
can actually reduce each team member’s
会削弱每个成员
problem-solving skills and creativity.
解决问题的能力和创造力
Even just one or two arrogant team members
即使只有一两个傲慢的成员
can completely ruin the group dynamic
也能彻底降低团体活力
and reduce the performance of the whole team.
并降低整个团队的表现
One study found that people’s individual IQ levels
一项研究表明 个人的智商水平
actually drop when they feel in competition with others.
会在感受到竞争性时下降
Just think of Iceland’s victory in the 2016 Euro Championships.
以2016年冰岛在欧锦赛上取胜为例
Now Iceland is a tiny country compared to the rest of Europe,
与欧洲其他国家相比 冰岛只是个小国
it really doesn’t have a huge pool of talent,
并非人才济济
and yet they performed extraordinarily well
但球员表现极好
and in fact they humiliated the England football team
事实上 尽管英格兰球队有许多一流球员
by defeating them despite all of our really top tier players.
但冰岛还是打败了英格兰 让他们蒙羞
Now this is an example of the too-much-talent-effect.
英国队就是“人才过多效应”的例子
Because England with so many star players
正因为英格兰有这么多明星球员
really struggled to have a cohesive group dynamic,
才很难有紧密的团队凝聚力
there were too many egos vying for attention.
因为太多的球员争夺注意力
Luckily there are things that you can do to avoid these thinking traps.
所幸 有方法能让你远离这些思维怪圈
For example, you can try arguing against yourself.
例如 你可以试着与自己争论
Consider your initial gut reaction
先感受你的本能反应
and then deliberately try to think from the opposite point of view.
然后刻意从对立面思考
Another technique you can use is called self-distancing.
另一种方法叫脱离自我
Step out of your shoes for a second
不要从自己的角度思考
and think about your issue from an outside perspective.
而是从外部视角思考你的问题
Or you might try mental time travel.
或者你可以尝试精神时间旅行
Imagine yourself in a month or a year’s time,
想象一下你处在一个月或一年后
looking back at your decision.
回顾你如今的决定
Lastly, why not try fine-tuning your emotional awareness.
最后 也可以尝试调节情绪觉察
Being able to label our feelings helps us to control them.
认清自己的感觉有助于我们掌控情绪
Various studies have shown that this simple technique
许多研究都表明 这个简单的技巧
has actually reduced emotional responses
能减少情绪反应
and made people less biased.
并让人们减少偏见
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谢谢收看 别忘了订阅
and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.
并点击铃铛图标来接收新视频的通知
See you again soon!
我们下期再见!

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视频概述

越聪明就越不会犯错吗?这可不一定。相反,越聪明还越容易犯错。这期视频介绍了聪明人做傻事的原因,如因为认知偏差以及过度相信直觉。视频里还说明了如何避免犯错,如与自己抗争、从外部视角看待问题以及体验精神时间旅行。希望我们都能变得更聪明!少犯错!

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