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为什么要读弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫? – Iseult Gillespie – 译学馆
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为什么要读弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫? - Iseult Gillespie

Why should you read Virginia Woolf? - Iseult Gillespie

你想锁住图书馆 请便 但你无法用门禁 门锁 门闩禁锢我思想的自由——弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙
如果威廉·莎士比亚有个像他一样
What if William Shakespeare had a sister who matched his imagination,
天赋非凡的妹妹 那又会发生什么呢?
his wit, and his way with words?
她会接受教育并成为大明星吗?
Would she have gone to school and set the stage alight?
弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙在其作品
In her essay “A Room of One’s Own,”
《一间自己的房间》中说明这根本不会发生
Virginia Woolf argues that this would have been impossible.
她虚构了一个小妹妹 成日被困在家中
She concocts a fictional sister who’s stuck at home,
每天逮着时间就乱写几页东西
snatching time to scribble a few pages
发现自己订婚后 她毅然逃出了家门
before she finds herself betrothed and runs away.
当他的哥哥誉满天下时 她依旧籍籍无名
While her brother finds fame and fortune, she remains abandoned and anonymous.
在伍尔芙的设想中
In this thought experiment,
她表达了天才被约束的悲剧
Woolf demonstrates the tragedy of genius restricted,
回望过去 寻找这些被掩埋的历史线索
and looks back through time for hints of these hidden histories.
她写道:“每当读到有女巫被施以水刑
She wrote, “When one reads of a witch being ducked,
或者某个女人被魔鬼附身
of a woman possessed by devils,
或者某个聪明的女人在卖草药
of a wise woman selling herbs,
或者甚至某个杰出的男人有位母亲时
or even a very remarkable man who had a mother,
我想我们有望找到一位消失了的小说家
then I think we’re on the track of a lost novelist,
一位受到压抑的诗人
a suppressed poet,
某个不体面且默默无闻的简·奥斯丁”
of some mute and inglorious Jane Austen.”
《一间自己的房间》虚构了一个因排他性
“A Room of One’s Own” considers a world denied great works of art
和不平等性而禁止伟大艺术品存在的世界
due to exclusion and inequality.
如何才能更好地理解孤僻的人的心路历程?
How best can we understand the internal experience of alienation?
弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙在她的随笔和小说中
In both her essays and fiction,
将主观经验的含糊本质塑造成文字
Virginia Woolf shapes the slippery nature of subjective experience into words.
她笔下的人物经常是内心世界
Her characters frequently lead inner lives that are deeply at odds
与他们的言行举止强烈不一致
with their external existence.
为了帮助你理解这些差异 下一次再读伍尔芙时
To help make sense of these disparities, the next time you read Woolf,
你需要事先了解 以下一些她的生平事迹
here are some aspects of her life and work to consider.
1882年她出生于一个富裕的大家庭 原名叫做艾德琳‧维吉尼亚‧史蒂芬
She was born Adeline Virginia Stephen in 1882 to a large and wealthy family,
富裕的家庭环境能够让她追求艺术生活
which enabled her to pursue a life in the arts.
1895年 她的母亲去世 在此之后的十年内
The death of her mother in 1895 was followed by that of her half-sister,
她同母异父的姐姐、父亲和哥哥相继逝世
father, and brother within the next ten years.
这些人们的逝世使伍尔芙患上抑郁症
These losses led to Woolf’s first depressive episode
也导致她后来入院治疗
and subsequent institutionalization.
作为一个年轻的女性 她在伦敦的布伦斯贝利
As a young woman, she purchased a house
购买了一栋房子和她的兄弟姐妹同住
in the Bloomsbury area of London with her siblings.
这使她融入到了一个文化圈
This brought her into contact with a circle of creatives,
这个圈子里有作家爱德华·摩根·福斯特
including E.M. Forster,
艺术批评家克莱夫·贝尔
Clive Bell,
艺术批评家罗杰·弗莱
Roger Fry,
和作家伦纳德·伍尔芙
and Leonard Woolf.
这些人后来成为著名的布卢姆斯伯里文化圈
These friends became known as the Bloomsbury Group,
1912年 弗吉尼亚和伦纳德结婚了
and Virginia and Leonard married in 1912.
这个群体的成员是现代主义的杰出人物
The members of this group were prominent figures in Modernism,
他们所引领的文化运动
a cultural movement that sought to push the boundaries
试图挑战传统文学中 对现实的表现手法
of how reality is represented.
现代主义写作的关键特征包括使用意识流
Key features of Modernist writing include the use of stream of consciousness,
内心独白
interior monologue,
时间的扭曲
distortions in time,
多重视角或视角转移
and multiple or shifting perspectives.
这些出现在文学评论家埃兹拉·庞德
These appear in the work of Ezra Pound,
小说家格特鲁德·斯泰因
Gertrude Stein,
作家詹姆斯·乔伊斯
James Joyce,
和伍尔芙她自己的作品中
and Woolf herself.
在读乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》时 伍尔芙开始写《达洛维夫人》
While reading Joyce’s “Ulysses,” Woolf began writing “Mrs. Dalloway.”
就像《尤利西斯》一样 文章讲述了一天之内发生的事情
Like “Ulysses,” the text takes place over the course of a single day
故事在看似平凡的环境中展开了
and opens under seemingly mundane circumstances.
“达洛维夫人说她要亲自去买些花”
“Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself.”
但小说深入描写了人物痛苦的过去
But the novel dives deeply into the characters’ traumatic pasts,
刻画了麻木的社会名流克莱丽莎·达洛维
weaving the inner world of numbed socialite Clarissa Dalloway,
和患弹震症的老兵塞普蒂默斯·华伦·史密斯的内心世界
with that of the shell-shocked veteran Septimus Warren Smith.
伍尔芙用内心独白来体现
Woolf uses interior monologue to contrast the rich world of the mind
人物内心的丰富世界与外在形象的对比
against her characters’ external existences.
在她的小说《到灯塔去》中
In her novel “To the Lighthouse,”
像晚宴或丢失一条项链这样平凡的时刻
mundane moments, like a dinner party, or losing a necklace
在拉姆齐的生活中却引发了心灵上的启示
trigger psychological revelations in the lives of the Ramsay’s,
这本小说是以伍尔芙的家庭为原型虚构的
a fictionalized version of Woolf’s family growing up.
《到灯塔去》还包含了伍尔芙
“To the Lighthouse” also contains one of the most famous examples
激进的时间表现手法中 最著名的例子之一
of Woolf’s radical representation of time.
在“岁月流逝”这部分
In the Time Passes section,
十年的时间被书写成大约20页的内容
ten years are distilled into about 20 pages.
在这部分中 由于拉姆齐的海滨别墅人迹罕至
Here, the lack of human presence in the Ramsays’ beach house
使得伍尔芙将时间重新定义为稍纵即逝 支离破碎的散文片段
allows Woolf to reimagine time in flashes and fragments of prose.
“房子被遗弃在那里 无人居住
“The house was left. The house was deserted.
它像被遗弃在沙丘上的一个贝壳 当生命离开了以后
It was left like a shell on a sand hill to fill with dry salt grains
只能听任干盐粒灌入其中”
now that life had left it.”
在她的小说《海浪》中
In her novel “The Waves,”
六个主要人物的叙述手法没有什么区别
there is little distinction between the narratives of the six main characters.
伍尔芙进行了集体意识的尝试
Woolf experiments with collective consciousness,
有时将六个人的声音压缩成一个
at times collapsing the six voices into one.
“它并不是我所常常回顾的那种生活
“It is not one life that I look back upon:
我却不只是一个人 我同时是很多很多的人
I am not one person: I am many people:
我完全弄不清楚我究竟是谁
I do not altogether know who I am,
珍妮 苏珊 奈维尔 罗达 或者路易斯
Jinny, Susan, Neville, Rhoda or Louis,
我也不知道该怎样区分我和他们的生活”
or how to distinguish my life from their’s.”
在《海浪》中 人物合六为一 但在主角性别发生扭转的小说《奥兰多》中
In “The Waves,” six become one, but in the gender-bending “Orlando,”
一个单独的角色具有双重身份
a single character inhabits multiple identities.
主角是一位诗人 在性别和生活上穿越了300年
The protagonist is a poet who switches between genders and lives for 300 years.
由于其流畅的语言和对身份的探讨
With its fluid language and approach to identity,
《奥兰多》被认为是性别研究中的重要文本
“Orlando” is considered a key text in gender studies.
思想如果不脱离生命的约束
The mind can only fly so far from the body
就飞不远
before it returns to the constraints of life.
和她的许多角色一样 伍尔芙的一生
Like many of her characters, Woolf’s life ended in tragedy
在她59岁时以溺亡的悲剧结束
when she drowned herself at the age of 59.
然而 她的作品却表达了一种超越痛苦的希望
Yet, she expressed hope beyond suffering.
伍尔芙经过深思熟虑而着墨的众多人物
Through deep thought, Woolf’s characters are shown
暂时脱离了他们所在的物质现实
to temporarily transcend their material reality,
通过对人物复杂内心世界的细腻描绘
and in its careful consideration of the complexity of the mind,
她的作品告诉我们 敞开心扉对增进了解的重要性
her work charts the importance of making our inner lives known to each other.
别抵触弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙
Not afraid of Virginia Woolf
看一看我们的团队在推荐书目里
then check our book rec’s list to see which of her masterpieces
都推荐了她的哪些作品
our team recommends.
感谢我们的合作伙伴Audible
And thanks to our partners that Audible.
你可以在我们的网站中免费下载
You can download a free audio version of any of her books
她的任何作品的音频版
on audible.com/teded
TedEd 是一个非盈利组织
By doing so you’ll be supporting teded is a non-profit educational mission
感谢您的观看与支持
Thanks for watching and thanks for your support.

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视频概述

弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙是英国女作家、文学批评家和文学理论家,意识流文学代表人物,被誉为二十世纪现代主义与女性主义的先锋。两次世界大战期间,她是伦敦文学界的核心人物,同时也是布卢姆茨伯里派的成员之一。

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