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为什么要读维吉尔的《埃涅伊德》 – 译学馆
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为什么要读维吉尔的《埃涅伊德》

Why should you read Virgil's "Aeneid"? - Mark Robinson

公元前19年 罗马诗人维吉尔同奥古斯都大帝
In 19 B.C., the Roman poet Virgil was traveling from Greece to Rome
从希腊前往罗马
with the emperor Augustus.
途中 他曾在希腊的一个小镇 迈加拉 驻足观光
On the way, he stopped to go sightseeing in Megara, a town in Greece.
长时间待在阳光下 导致他中暑了
Out in the sun for too long, he suffered heatstroke
返回意大利的途中 就去世了
and died on his journey back to Italy.
弥留之际
On his deathbed,
维吉尔想起了他十年来一直笔耕不缀的手稿
Virgil thought about the manuscript he had been working on for over ten years,
一首名叫 《埃涅伊德 》的史诗
an epic poem that he called the “Aeneid.”
维吉尔对终稿一直不满意 就让他的朋友们把他烧了
Unsatisfied with the final edit, he asked his friends to burn it,
但他们没这样做
but they refused.
就在维吉尔死后不久 奥古斯都下令将其出版
And soon after Virgil’s death, Augustus ordered it to be published.
为什么奥古斯有兴趣将维吉尔的诗保存下来呢?
Why was Augustus so interested in saving Virgil’s poem?
罗马人一点也没写过严肃文学
The Romans had little tradition of writing serious literature
维吉尔想创作一首诗
and Virgil wanted to create a poem
一首能与古希腊的《伊利亚特》和 《奥德赛》匹敌的诗
to rival the “Iliad” and “Odyssey” of Ancient Greece.
《埃涅伊德》全长9896行 共计12部
The “Aeneid,” a 9,896 line poem, spans twelve separate sections, or books,
前六本与《奥德赛》的结构相似
the first six of which mirror the structure of the “Odyssey”
后六本又效仿了《伊利亚特》
and the last six echo the “Iliad”
而且风格又类似希腊史诗
also like the Greek epics.
《埃涅伊德》是抑扬格六音步
The “Aeneid” is written entirely in dactylic hexameter.
其韵律下 每一行都有六个音节组称作音步
In this meter, each line has six syllable groups called feet
包括长 短 短 的强弱弱格和
made up of dactyls which go long, short, short,
长 长 的扬扬格
and spondees which go long, long.
这首史诗最出名的开头是用原始拉丁文写的
So the famous opening line in the original Latin starts,
“Arma Virvmqve Cano”
“Arma Virvmqve Cano,”
即“我歌颂军队和战士”
which can be translated as “I sing of arms and the man,”
武器 意味着战争 也是《伊利亚特》所以指向的
arms, meaning battles and warfare, another “Iliad” reference,
男人就是艾尼阿斯
and the man being the hero Aeneas.
为了理解《埃涅伊德》
To understand the “Aeneid,”
了解古罗马于公元前1世纪后500年的
it’s necessary to examine the unsettled nature of Roman politics
未成文自然法就显得很重要
in the second half of the 1st century B.C.
公元前49年 尤里乌斯·凯撒 也就是奥古斯都的叔叔
In 49 B.C., Julius Caesar, Augustus’s great uncle,
在率领军队反抗罗马共和国的时候
triggered nearly 20 years of civil war
引发了罗马持续了将近20年的内战
when he led his army against the Roman Republic.
之后由于推行独裁而遭暗杀
After introducing a dictatorship, he was assassinated.
公元前31年 奥古斯都在打败安东尼和埃及艳后之后
Only after Augustus’s victory over Marc Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C.
平安返回了罗马
did peace return to Rome
成为了新一代帝王
and Augustus became the emperor.
维吉尔的目的是把握住新时代的特征
Virgil aimed to capture this sense of a new era
以及罗马人在这几年做出的巨大牺牲
and of the great sacrifices that the Romans had endured.
他想要让罗马人对他们的诞生
He wanted to give the Romans a fresh sense of their origins,
过去
their past,
潜能都保有一种新鲜感
and their potential.
通过将罗马的建立与
by connecting the founding of Rome
读者所熟知的神话想联系 从而实现这一目的
to the mythological stories that his audience knew so well.
维吉尔将奥古斯都塑造成他心目中的英雄艾尼阿斯
Virgil was able to link his hero Aeneas to the character of Augustus.
他的史诗中 艾尼阿斯肩负使命 为他的子民建立一个新家
In the epic poem, Aeneas is on a quest to establish a new home for his people.
这也就是罗马人所说面对所有困难时的
This duty, or pietas as the Romans called it,
使命感及虔诚
faces all kinds of obstacles.
艾尼阿斯冒着毁灭特洛伊遗迹的风险
Aeneas risks destruction in the ruins of Troy,
忍受着与迦太基美丽的公主狄朵相爱却不能在一起的痛苦折磨
agonizes over love when he meets the beautiful Queen of Carthage, Dido,
都在古代文学中最生动的章节中得到展现
and in one of the most vivid passages in all of ancient literature,
可这一切都只能默默承受
has to pass through the underworld.
凌驾于一切之上的是 他必须为他的子民抗争 赢得他们的家园
On top of all that, he must then fight to win a homeland for his people
这是罗马的未来
around the future sight of Rome.
维吉尔用艾尼阿斯作为奥古斯都的创作模型
Virgil presents Aeneas as a sort of model for Augustus,
这可能是为什么奥古斯都热切的
and that’s probably one of the reasons the emperor was so eager
想要保留下这首史诗的原因之一
to save the poem from destruction.
但是维吉尔并没有仅限于此
But Virgil didn’t stop there.
在一些章节中 艾尼阿斯甚至对罗马的未来和奥古斯都本人做出了展望
In some sections, Aeneas even has visions of Rome’s future and of Augustus himself.
维吉尔将奥古斯都描述成一个胜者 胜利凯旋罗马
Virgil presents Augustus as a victor, entering Rome in triumph
此外他还开拓了罗马帝国的疆土
and shows him expanding the Roman Empire.
也许最重要的是 作为罗马700年历史里第三任领导人 他受尽爱戴
Perhaps most importantly, he’s hailed as only the third Roman leader in 700 years
供奉战神的雅努斯的神庙终于关上 迎来的将是永久的和平
to shut the doors of the Temple of Janus signifying the arrival of permanent peace.
但实际上 这里有点扭曲了事实
But there’s a twist.
维吉尔只读了奥古斯都从故事中选的三个节选
Virgil only read Augustus three selected extracts of the story
那就是维吉尔了解到整个奥古斯都的形象
and that was Augustus’s entire exposure to it.
而除了表现出帝王的成就的部分
Some of the other sections could be seen as critical,
其他关于这位帝王的描述却被认为具有批判性
if not subtly subversive about the emperor’s achievements.
艾尼阿斯再一次成为了奥古斯都的模范 为了他的责任抗争
Aeneas, again a model for Augustus, struggles with his duty
总是被视为是一位顽强的英雄
and often seems a reluctant hero.
其实他的行为并不总是算得上是一个好的罗马领导者
He doesn’t always live up to the behavior expected of a good Roman leader.
他尽力做到怜悯与公正的平衡
He struggles to balance mercy and justice.
但到最后 却给读者留下一个想象的空间 罗马的未来什么样
By the end, the reader is left wondering about the future of Rome
以及奥古斯都的新议会怎么样
and the new government of Augustus.
也许是想要把故事快点出版
Perhaps in wanting the story published,
奥古斯都被他自己期盼自我形象提升的愿望 愚弄了
Augustus had been fooled by his own desire for self-promotion.
结果 维吉尔的故事至今仍有几个问题可以思考
As a result, Virgil’s story has survived to ask questions
关于天赋权力与权威
about the nature of power and authority ever since.
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视频概述

维吉尔的史诗作品《埃涅伊德 》向我们展示了奥古斯都及罗马的形象,却也给我们留下了思考的空间

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p4mbk59rbjE

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