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为什么要读莎士比亚的《暴风雨》?

Why should you read Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”? - Iseult Gillespie

“我们就是梦幻所用的材料 一场睡梦环抱了短促的人生” ——威廉·莎士比亚《暴风雨》
Claps of thunder and flashes of lightning illuminate a swelling sea,
雷声隆隆 闪电明灭 照亮了波涛汹涌的大海
as a ship buckles beneath the waves.
一艘船在海浪中左摇右晃
This is no ordinary storm, but a violent and vengeful tempest,
这不是普通的风雨 这是一场猛烈的复仇风暴
and it sets the stage for Shakespeare’s most enigmatic play.
它奠定了莎士比亚最为神秘的戏剧舞台
As the skies clear, we are invited into a world
当天空渐晴 我们进入到一个
that seems far removed from our own, but is rife with familiar concerns
似乎远离现实的世界 但其中却充斥着我们所在意且熟悉的事物
about freedom, power, and control.
自由 权利和控制欲
The Tempest is set on a desert island, exposed to the elements
《暴风雨》的背景设定在一个历经风吹雨打的荒岛上
and ruled with magic and might by Prospero, the exiled Duke of Milan.
流亡的米兰公爵普洛斯彼罗用魔法和强权统治着这里
Betrayed by his brother Antonio, Prospero has been marooned on the island
普洛斯彼罗被他的弟弟安东尼奥背叛
for twelve years with his daughter Miranda and his beloved books.
同女儿米兰达和他的爱书一起被困在岛上十二年之久
In this time he’s learned the magic of the island
在这段时间里 他学会了岛上的魔法
and uses it to harness its elementary spirits.
并用此控制了岛上原始的精灵鬼怪
He also rules over the island’s only earthly inhabitant,
他还统治着岛上唯一的土著
the dejected and demonized Caliban.
沉闷丑怪的卡利班
But after years of plotting revenge, Prospero’s foe is finally in sight.
经过多年的筹划 普洛斯彼罗的敌人终于出现了
With the help of the fluttering sprite Ariel,
在飞舞的精灵爱丽儿的帮助下
the magician destroys his brother’s ship and washes its sailors ashore.
这位魔法师摧毁了他弟弟的船只 并把水手们都冲到了岸上
Prospero’s plotting even extends to his daughter’s love life,
普洛斯彼罗的计谋甚至包括了他女儿的情感生活
whom he plans to fall for stranded prince Ferdinand.
他计划让女儿爱上被困的斐迪南王子
And as Prospero and Ariel close in on Antonio,
当普洛斯彼罗和爱丽儿接近安东尼奥时
Caliban joins forces with some drunken sailors,
卡利班和一些醉酒的水手联手
who hatch a comic plot to take the island.
策划了占领岛屿的阴谋
The play strips society down to its basest desires,
这部剧将社会抽丝剥茧 只剩下了最基本的欲望
with each faction in hot pursuit of power- be it over the land, other people,
剧中每个阵营都一心追求权利:不论是统治小岛 奴役他人
or their own destiny.
亦或是掌控自己的命运
But Shakespeare knows that power is always a moving target;
但莎士比亚知道权利是一个不断变化的目标
and as he reveals these characters’ dark histories,
随着这些角色黑暗的过往被揭露
we begin to wonder if this vicious cycle will ever end.
我们渐渐怀疑这种恶性循环是否会终结
Although Prospero was wronged by Antonio,
虽然普洛斯彼罗被安东尼奥篡夺了爵位
he has long inflicted his own abuses on the island,
但他也长期在岛上发号施令 奴役他人
hoarding its magical properties and natural resources for himself.
为了私欲聚藏岛上的魔法和自然资源
Caliban especially resents this takeover.
卡利班特别痛恨普洛斯彼罗的掌权
The son of Sycorax,
卡利班的母亲西考拉克斯
a witch who previously ruled the island,
是先前统治小岛的女巫
he initially helped the exiles find their footing.
卡利班起初帮助流放者们安置下来
But he’s since become their slave, and rants with furious regret:
但却从此成了他们的奴隶 他深恶痛绝地咆哮着:
“And then I loved thee,/ And showed thee
“那时我以为你是个好人 我带你见识了
all the qualities o’ th’ isle/ The fresh springs,
岛上的一切美好 甘泉
brine pits, barren place and fertile./
盐井 荒地和肥田
Cursed be I that did so!”
我真该死让你知道这一切!”
With his thunderous language and seething anger,
卡利班雷鸣般的言语和翻腾的怒火
Caliban constantly reminds Prospero of what came before:
无时无刻提醒着普洛斯彼罗此前的所作所为:
this island’s mine by Sycorax my mother, Which thou takest from me.
这座岛是我母亲西科拉克斯的 你从我手里夺走了它
Yet Sycorax also abused the island,
但西考拉克斯也曾在岛上横行霸道
and imprisoned Ariel until Prospero released him.
她囚禁了爱丽儿 直到普洛斯彼罗将他救出
Now Ariel spends the play hoping to repay his debt and earn his freedom,
现在爱丽儿倾其所有 希望偿还普洛斯彼罗的恩情并重获自由
while Caliban is enslaved indefinitely,
然而实际上只要掌权的是普洛斯彼罗
or at least as long as Prospero is in charge.
卡利班就会被无限期地奴役
For these reasons and many more,
基于以上种种原因
The Tempest has often been read as an exploration of colonialism,
《暴风雨》常被解读成是对“发现新大陆”
and the moral dilemmas that come with encounters of “brave new world(s).”
所导致的殖民主义和道德困境的一次探讨
Questions of agency and justice hang over the play:
统治和正义的问题贯穿全剧:
is Caliban the rightful master of the land?
卡利班是小岛的正当统治者吗?
Will Ariel flutter free?
爱丽儿会重获自由吗?
And is Prospero the mighty overseer-
普洛斯彼罗是强有力的监督者吗?
or is there some deeper magic at work, beyond any one character’s grasp?
还是说在每一个角色之上 都有什么更深层的魔法在运作?
Throughout the play,
全剧
Ariel constantly reminds Prospero of the freedom he is owed.
爱丽儿不断提醒着普洛斯彼罗 那本该属于他的自由
But the question lingers of whether the invader
但问题在于入侵者
will be able to relinquish his grip.
是否会让出他的控制权
The question of ending one’s reign is particularly potent given that
鉴于《暴风雨》被认为是莎士比亚的最后一部剧作
The Tempest is believed to be Shakespeare’s final play.
关于终结个人统治的问题尤显突出
In many ways Prospero’s actions echo that of the great entertainer himself,
在很多方面 普洛斯彼罗的行为都呼应了这位伟大的剧作家自身的行为
who hatched elaborate plots, maneuvered those around him,
莎士比亚酝酿了精妙的剧情并运用它们
and cast a spell over characters and audience alike.
如魔法般支配着剧中的角色和剧外的观众
But by the end of his grand performance of power and control,
但当这场权利与控制的宏大演出落幕之时
Prospero’s final lines see him humbled by his audience –
普洛斯彼罗最后的几句台词让观众为之折服
and the power that they hold over his creations.
观众们也从莎翁的创作中获得了力量
“With the help of your good hands./ Gentle breath of yours my sails/
“赖着你们善意殷勤的鼓掌相助 再烦你们为我吹嘘出一口和风
Must fill or else my project fails,/ Which was to please.”
好让我们的船只一齐鼓满帆篷 否则我的计划便落空”
This evokes Shakespeare’s own role as the great entertainer
这让我们想起莎士比亚自身的角色 一位伟大的艺人
who surrenders himself, ultimately, to our applause.
最终 也受降于我们的掌声
One way that Shakespeare entertained his audiences
莎士比亚逗乐观众的一个方式就是
was with his clever and cutting insults.
巧妙尖酸的讽刺
Learn how to diss someone with style by watching this video.
看本期视频 学会有范儿地讽刺
More of a lover than a fighter. Find out more with this video.
比起战斗 更喜欢走慈爱路线?通过本视频去了解更多吧!

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视频概述

《暴风雨》是英国文学巨匠威廉·莎士比亚有生之年独立完成的最后一部剧作,富有极高的文学价值和人文主义精神,被称为“诗的遗嘱”。全剧充满诗意与平和宁静的气息,玄妙的幻想、瑰丽的描写、生动的形象、诗意的背景。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

AWAY

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvznOeSyESU

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