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为什么要读《麦克白》 – 译学馆
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为什么要读《麦克白》

Why should you read "Macbeth"? - Brendan Pelsue

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有一个极富震撼力的戏剧
There’s a play so powerful that an old superstition says
古老迷信说其名不可在剧院提起
its name should never even be uttered in a theater,
戏剧以巫术为始 血腥头颅收尾
a play that begins with witchcraft and ends with a bloody severed head,
充满谜团 预卜 梦魇幻象
a play filled with riddles, prophesies, nightmare visions,
和大量凶残杀戮
and lots of brutal murder,
威廉·莎士比亚的这个戏剧
a play by William Shakespeare sometimes referred to as the “Scottish Play”
称“苏格兰戏剧”或“麦克白悲剧”
or the “Tragedy of Macbeth.”
1606年首场演出在伦敦环球剧院上映
First performed at the Globe Theater in London in 1606,
“麦克白”是莎士比亚创作的最短悲剧
“Macbeth” is Shakespeare’s shortest tragedy.
也是他最激动人心的作品之一
It is also one of his most action-packed.
他通过五幕叙述了一个苏格兰贵族
In five acts, he recounts a story of a Scottish nobleman
篡夺王权的故事
who steals the throne,
他们恐怖统治主掌政权
presides over a reign of terror,
导致血腥的结局
and then meets a bloody end.
戏剧提出了野心
Along the way, it asks important questions about ambition,
强权和暴力的重要问题
power, and violence
直接揭露了莎士比亚时期的政治问题
that spoke directly to the politics of Shakespeare’s time
引起我们深思
and continue to echo in our own.
17世纪早期的英国政治动荡
England in the early 17th century was politically precarious.
伊丽莎白一世于1603年逝世 没有子嗣
Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 without producing an heir,
出人意料的是
and in a surprise move,
她的国师们将王位移交詹姆士·斯图亚特
her advisors passed the crown to James Stewart,
让其成为苏格兰之王
King of Scotland.
两年后 詹姆士成为了
Two years later, James was subject to an assassination attempt
火药阴谋的首要暗杀对象
called the Gunpowder Plot.
一个合格的国王应具有何种品质
Questions of what made for a legitimate king
人们对此议论纷纷
were on everyone’s lips.
所以莎士比亚必须深入了解
So Shakespeare must have known he had potent material
为11世纪苏格兰凶残的
when he conflated and adapted the stories
国王麦克白和贵族斗争故事
of a murderous 11th century Scottish King named Macbeth
整合并改编有说服力的证据材料
and those of several other Scottish nobles.
他从16世纪英国和爱尔兰的历史学家
He found their annals in Hollinshed’s “Chronicles,”
霍林希德的编年史中找到了年鉴
a popular 16th century history of Britain and Ireland.
莎士比亚深知唯有以一种能引发
Shakespeare would also have known he needed to tell his story
人们强烈反响的方式来讲述故事
in a way that would immediately grab the attention
才能吸引到更多人的注意力
of his diverse and rowdy audience.
环球剧院接受各阶层人士
The Globe welcomed all sections of society.
富有的顾客在遮阳的楼厅观赏
Wealthier patrons watched the stage from covered balconies
而穷苦的人们花上一便士
while poorer people paid a penny to take in the show
就能在露天的正厅后座观看
from an open-air section called the pit.
表演过程中常伴有交谈声 嘲讽声和欢呼声
Talking, jeering, and cheering was common during performances.
戏剧乏味时 许多观众扔家具以示不满
There are even accounts of audiences throwing furniture when plays were flops.
所以“麦克白”开场时 传出一声巨响
So “Macbeth” opens with a literal bang.
天空电闪雷鸣 三个女巫骤现
Thunder cracks and three witches appear.
她们称正在寻找
They announce they’re searching
一个战胜归来的苏格兰贵族英雄麦克白
for a Scottish nobleman and war hero named Macbeth,
她们飞走时一边诅咒全世界陷入癫狂
then fly off while chanting a curse that predicts a world gone mad.
“美即丑 丑即美 翱翔毒雾妖云里”
“Fair is foul and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air.”
寻觅间 她们找到了麦克白还有同行的贵族班柯
As seen later, they find Macbeth and his fellow nobleman Banquo.
她们预言道“全民致敬麦克白 他是未来的王”
“All hail Macbeth,” they prophesize, “that shalt be king hereafter!”
麦克白疑惑道“我是王?”
“King?” Macbeth wonders.
怎么做才能获得王位呢?
Just what would he have to do to gain the crown?
麦克白和他的夫人
Macbeth and his wife Lady Macbeth
不久后策划起谋杀 阴谋及叛变
soon chart a course of murder, lies, and betrayal.
在继起的大屠杀中
In the ensuing bloodbath,
莎士比亚给观众展示
Shakespeare provides viewers with some of the most memorable passages
英国文学作品中最经典的段落
in English literature.
“滚 这该死的血迹!” 麦克白夫人深信受害者
“Out, damned spot! Out, I say!” Lady Macbeth cries when she believes
的血迹无法从手上擦拭干净时嚎啕大哭
she can’t wipe her victim’s blood off her hands.
她极度的罪恶感是贯穿戏剧的
Her obsession with guilt is one of many themes that runs through the play,
如权利滥用趋势
along with the universal tendency to abuse power,
无休止暴政和叛变
the endless cycles of violence and betrayal,
及挑起政治冲突等众多主题之一
the defying political conflict.
莎士比亚的语言很典型
As is typical with Shakespeare’s language,
戏剧开头重复使用大量短语
a number of phrases that got their start in the play
以至于观众感觉司空见惯
have been repeated so many times that they now feel commonplace.
包括“人情乳臭”
They include “the milk of human kindness”,
“覆水难收”
“what’s done is done,”
还有经典的女巫咒语
and the famous witches’ spell,
“不惮辛劳不惮烦 釜中沸沫已成澜 ”
“Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn, and caldron bubble.”
莎士比亚绝妙地塑造了麦克白形象
But Shakespeares saves the juiciest bit of all for Macbeth himself.
戏剧末尾 麦克白反映了
Towards the end of the play, Macbeth reflects on the universality of death
死亡的普遍性及生活的徒劳
and the futility of life.
他恸哭说到 “熄灭吧 熄灭吧 瞬间的灯火 ”
“Out, out, brief candle!” he laments.
“人生只不过是行走着的影子
“Life’s but a walking shadow,
一个在舞台上指手划脚的拙劣的伶人
a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage
登场片刻 就在无声无息中悄然退下
and then is heard no more.
一个愚人所讲的故事 充满着喧哗和骚动
It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury
却找不到一点意义”
signifying nothing.”
生活若是某个愚人讲的故事 “麦克白”绝非如此
Life may be a tale told my an idiot, but “Macbeth” is not.
莎士比亚的词句和角色极有限的
Shakespeare’s language and characters have entered our cultural consciousness
融汇到我们的文化意识中
to a rare extent.
导演们常用这个故事揭露权力滥用
Directors often use the story to shed light on abuses of power,
从美国黑手党
ranging from the American mafia
到世界各地的独裁者不等
to dictators across the globe.
该戏剧多次被电影取材
The play has been adapted to film many times,
包括黑泽明的“蜘蛛巢城”
including Akira Kurosawa’s “Throne of Blood,”
其故事发生在日本的封建时期
which takes place in feudal Japan,
还有一个叫“苏格兰场”的现代电影
and a modernized version called “Scotland, PA,”
讲到麦克白和他的对手
in which Macbeth and his rivals
是竞争快餐店的经理
are managers of competing fast food restaurants.
无论展示的内容如何
No matter the presentation,
这些道德 政治及权利的问题
questions of morality, politics,
在现今仍意义非凡
and power are still relevant today,
这也造就了“麦克白”当今时代的意义
and so, it seems, is Shakespeare’s “Macbeth.”
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莎士比亚四大悲剧之一《麦克白》你可读过?听我给你介绍一波吧,感兴趣可以阅读原著哦~

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