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为什么要读詹姆斯·乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》——萨姆·斯洛特 – 译学馆
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为什么要读詹姆斯·乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》——萨姆·斯洛特

Why should you read James Joyce's "Ulysses"? - Sam Slote

谦虚求教 生活就是最好的老师
普遍认为 詹姆斯·乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》是一本文学巨著
James Joyce’s “Ulysses” is widely considered to be both a literary masterpiece
同时也是最难读懂的文学作品之一
and one of the hardest works of literature to read.
它引发人们的热烈追捧 在一年一度的“布鲁姆日”
It inspires such devotion that once a year on a day called Bloomsday,
来自世界各地 成千上万的读者会穿上书中角色的服装
thousands of people all over the world dress up like the characters,
走上街头
take to the streets,
大声地朗读这部作品
and read the book aloud.
有些人甚至还会前往都柏林朝圣
And some even make a pilgrimage to Dublin
只为了亲眼看看这座被乔伊斯描写得栩栩如生的城市
just to visit the places so vividly depicted in Joyce’s opus.
所以这部著名的高难度小说到底写了什么
So what is it about this famously difficult novel
才能激励如此多的人?
that inspires so many people?
这个问题的答案并不是单一的
There’s no one simple answer to that question,
这本书有许多非凡之处
but there are a few remarkable things about the book
才会让许多人念念不忘
that keep people coming back.
它讲述了一天之内
The plot, which transpires over the course of a single day,
三个人物的故事:
is a story of three characters:
斯蒂芬·迪德勒斯 是乔伊斯早期作品
Stephen Dedalus, reprised from Joyce’s earlier novel,
《一个青年艺术家的画像》中的主人公
“A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”;
拥有一半犹太人血统的利奥波德·布鲁姆 则是都柏林一家报社的广告推销员
Leopold Bloom, a half-Jewish advertising canvasser for a Dublin newspaper;
还有布鲁姆的妻子 正要开始寻找外遇的摩莉
and Bloom’s wife Molly, who is about to embark on an affair.
斯蒂芬的母亲前不久去世了 而他为此十分悲伤
Stephen is depressed because of his mother’s recent death.
与此同时 布鲁姆正在城市街头游荡
Meanwhile, Bloom wanders throughout the city.
他参加了一场葬礼
He goes to a funeral,
去了他的公司
his work,
还去了酒吧
a pub,
以及其它许多地方
and so on,
却不敢回家 因为摩莉要与情人约会
avoiding going home because Molly is about to begin her affair.
故事开始变得有趣
Where it really starts to get interesting, though,
是因为它的叙述方式
is how the story’s told.
每一章都以不同的风格写就
Each chapter is written in a different style.
第十五章是一幕戏剧
15 is a play,
第十三章像是俗气的爱情小说
13 is like a cheesy romance novel,
第十二章的故事有许多奇怪又夸张的断点
12 is a story with bizarre, exaggerated interruptions,
第十一章运用了许多写作技巧 比如拟声 重复 头韵
11 uses techniques, like onomatopoeia, repetitions, and alliteration
来模仿歌曲
to imitate music,
第十四章则再现了英国文学散文风格的演变过程
and 14 reproduces the evolution of English literary prose style,
从盎格鲁撒克逊时期发端 直到二十世纪为止
from its beginnings in Anglo-Saxon right up to the 20th century.
在最后一章终于达到高潮
That all culminates in the final chapter
伴随着摩莉的意识流语体
which follows Molly’s stream of consciousness
好像不停地扯线一样的内心独白 整整八个长段
as it spools out in just eight long paragraphs
毫无停顿 淋漓尽致
with almost no punctuation.
乔伊斯在《尤利西斯》中运用的多种文体
The range of styles Joyce uses in “Ulysses”
是导致这本书难以被读懂的原因之一
is one of the things that makes it so difficult,
但同时这也为阅读提供了许多乐趣
but it also helps make it enjoyable.
这也帮助这本书
And it’s one of the reasons that the book has held up
成为现代主义文学的代表作之一
as one of the key texts of literary modernism,
后者是一场以推翻传统写作模式为特征的文学运动
a movement characterized by overturning traditional modes of writing.
乔伊斯在他的叙述惯常套路中
Joyce fills his narrative gymnastic routines
加入了一些创新的日常用语
with some of the most imaginative use of language you’ll find anywhere.
举个例子
Take, for instance,
“坐在圆塔前大石墩上的是一条好汉
“The figure seated on a large boulder at the foot of a round tower
肩膀宽阔 胸膛厚实 四肢强壮 眼光坦率 头发发红
was that of a broadshouldered deepchested stronglimbed frankeyed redhaired
雀斑斑斓 胡子蓬松 嘴巴宽大 鼻子高耸 脑袋长长 嗓音深沉
freelyfreckled shaggybearded widemouthed largenosed longheaded deepvoiced
膝盖裸露 两手粗壮 两腿多毛 脸色红润 双臂多腱”
barekneed brawnyhanded hairlegged ruddyfaced sinewyarmed hero.”
此处 乔伊斯对一个上了年纪 男子气概十足的人进行了夸张的描写
Here, Joyce exaggerates the description of a mangy old man in a pub
让他看上去像一个形象极其高大的英雄人物
to make him seem like an improbably gigantesque hero.
当然 有些片段一眼扫过时确实显得太过密集
It’s true that some sections are impenetrably dense at first glance,
这给了读者选择的权利 是粗粗略过
but it’s up to the reader to let their eyes skim over them
还是使出撬断铁锹般的气势 细细研读这部作品
or break out a shovel and dig in.
一旦你开始仔细阅读内容
And once you start excavating the text,
你会发现它是一座包罗万象的宝库
you’ll find the book to be an encyclopedic treasure trove.
它包含了各种各样的引用和典故
It’s filled with all manner of references and allusions
从中世纪哲学到纹身的象征意义
from medieval philosophy to the symbolism of tattoos,
从但丁到都柏林俚语
and from Dante to Dublin slang.
如标题所示 有些典故以荷马的《奥德赛》为中心
As suggested by the title, some of these allusions revolve around Homer’s “Odyssey.”
每一个章节都和《奥德赛》的章节有着相同的名字
Each chapter is named after a character or episode from the “Odyssey,”
但是行文却是忸怩作态的 充满争议的 尖酸刻薄的 以及装腔作势的
but the literary references are often coy, debatable, sarcastic, or disguised.
比如说 荷马笔下的奥德修斯在二十年的传奇旅程之后
For example, Homer’s Odysseus, after an epic 20-year-long journey,
回到了家乡伊萨卡 与他忠贞的妻子破镜重圆
returns home to Ithaca and reunites with his faithful wife.
而乔伊斯笔下的布鲁姆则是终日游荡在都柏林街头
In contrast, Joyce’s Bloom wanders around Dublin for a day
回到家时见到的只有放荡的妻子
and returns home to his unfaithful wife.
这是一本很有意思的书
It’s a very funny book.
它有许多高雅精巧的幽默——
It has highbrow intellectual humor,
如果你有耐心了解乔伊斯过往的经历的话——
if you have the patience to track down Joyce’s references,
也有许多低俗的荤段子
and more lowbrow dirty jokes.
这些玩笑 以及一些关于性的内容 会让有些人觉得难以忍受
Those, and other sexual references, were too much for some.
在美国 这本书被送上审判席 被宣告为禁书 禁止流通
In the U.S., the book was put on trial, banned, and censored
即使当时这本书还未完成
before it had even been completed
因为它最开始是以小说连载的形式面市的
because it was originally published as a serial novel.
《尤利西斯》的读者们不仅领略了如此之多的文体
Readers of “Ulysses” aren’t just led through a variety of literary styles.
他们还经历了一场丰富多彩又令人惊奇的旅行
They’re also given a rich and shockingly accurate tour
在那个特定的地点 特定的时间:
of a specific place at a time:
1904年的都柏林
Dublin in 1904.
乔伊斯宣称 如果都柏林城被毁
Joyce claimed that if Dublin were to be destroyed,
也能在这本书中获得新生
it could be recreated from the pages of this book.
虽然这样的说法并不完全正确
While such a claim is not exactly true,
但它确实表现出了乔伊斯在雕琢细节方面的用心
it does show the great care that Joyce took in precisely representing details,
把他的家乡大大小小各个方面都写进作品之中
both large and small, of his home city.
考虑到他写整部书的时候 都不在家乡爱尔兰生活
No small feat considering he wrote the entire novel
这部作品实在是一个不小的成就
while living outside of his native Ireland.
能写出《尤利西斯》这样高难度的作品 是对乔伊斯天纵之资的力证
It’s a testament to Joyce’s genius that “Ulysses” is a difficult book.
有些人觉得它太难读懂了 以至于没有满篇注释的话
Some people find it impenetrable without a full book of annotations
他们甚至不能明白乔伊斯到底在写什么
to help them understand what Joyce is even talking about.
但是阅读它的过程中总会发现许多乐趣
But there’s a lot of joy to be found in reading it,
不仅仅在于读懂典故和解决疑惑
more than just unpacking allusions and solving puzzles.
如果它很难读懂 或是令人沮丧 或是引人发笑
And if it’s difficult, or frustrating, or funny,
都是因为生活本就是如此 甚至更甚于此
that’s because life is all that, and more.
为了回应那些抨击《尤利西斯》的言论
Responding to some criticism of “Ulysses,”
它刚出版的时候面临许多批评
and there was a lot when it was first published,
乔伊斯说道 如果《尤利西斯》不值得读下去
Joyce said that if “Ulysses” isn’t worth reading,
那么生命也不值得活下去
then life isn’t worth living.

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视频概述

《尤利西斯》是爱尔兰作家詹姆斯·乔伊斯所著的长篇意识流小说。描述主人公利奥波德在1904年6月16日这一天之内的经历。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7FobPxu27M

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