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你为什么应该读《唐·吉诃德》? – 译学馆
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你为什么应该读《唐·吉诃德》?

Why should you read "Don Quixote"? - Ilan Stavans

“人的一切事情都是有限的”——米格尔·德·塞万提斯《唐•吉诃德》
“All things human are finite.”-Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
骑着自己的瘦马
Mounting his skinny steed,
《唐•吉诃德》的主人公向一群巨人发起冲锋
the protagonist of Don Quixote charges an army of giants.
在他看来 为了自己仰慕的女子 达尔西妮亚
In his eyes, it is his duty to vanquish these behemoths
击败这些巨兽是他的使命
in the name of his beloved lady, Dulcinea.
然而 这种英勇行为却有些莽撞
However,this act of valor is ill conceived.
正如他的侍从桑丘•潘萨无数次向他解释的那样
As his squire Sancho Panza explains to him time and again,
它们不是巨人 它们仅仅是风车
these aren’t giants; they are merely windmills.
唐•吉诃德并没有被吓住
Don Quixote is undeterred,
但他刺向它们的矛很快被它们的帆夹住了
but his piercing lance is soon caught in their sails.
这位从未气馁过的骑士自豪地站了起来
Never discouraged, the knight stands proudly, and becomes
并更加坚信自己的使命
even more convinced of his mission.
此片段里的唐•吉诃德深受众人喜爱
This sequence encapsulates much of what is loved about Don Quixote,
关于阿隆索•基贾诺 这个变成拉曼查地区笨拙而勇敢的唐•吉诃德的人
the epic, illogical, and soulful tale ofAlonso Quijano,
其史诗般 不合常理却又高尚的传说
who becomes the clumsy but valiantDon Quixote of la Mancha,
被称为《愁眉苦脸的勇士》
known as the Knight of the Sorrowful Countenance.
起初出版两卷
Originally published in two volumes,
故事讲述了唐•吉诃德
the narrative follows Don Quixote
穿越西班牙中部和北部
as he travels through central and northern Spain
与邪恶力量作斗争的故事
fighting the forces of evil.
尽管《唐•吉诃德》具有崇高的想象力
Despite Don Quixote’s lofty imagination,
其创作者 米格尔•德•塞万提斯
his creator, Miguel de Cervantes,
从未料到自己的书
could never have imagined his book would
会成为有史以来最畅销的小说
become the best-selling novel of all time.
除了他五年的军旅生涯
Barring 5 years as a soldier,
和五年多被海盗奴役的时间以外
and 5 more enslaved by pirates,
塞万提斯在他人生大部分时间里
Cervantes spent most of his life
是一名挣扎的诗人和剧作家
as a struggling poet and playwright.
直到50多岁时 他才出版了自己最伟大的作品
It wasn’t until his late 50’s that he published his greatest creation:
《骑士小说的史诗讽刺》
an epic satire of chivalry novels.
在这个时候 中世纪的
At this time, medieval books chronicling the adventures
描写骑士冒险及道德准则的书主导着欧洲文化
of knights and their moral code dominated European culture.
当塞万提斯还是一名书迷时
While Cervantes was a fan,
他就很反感这些陈词滥调
he was weary of these repetitive tomes,
这些书关注的 更多的是列出英雄功勋 而不是角色的成长
which focused more on listing heroic feats than character development.
为了挑战它们 他写了《唐•吉诃德》
To challenge them, he wrote Don Quixote,
一部关于整天阅读骑士小说的
the story of a hidalgo, or idle nobleman,
西班牙绅士或者说是懒惰贵族的故事
who spends his days and nights reading chivalry novels.
为这些骑士小说而疯狂的唐•吉诃德
Driven mad by these stories,
把自己塑造成受压迫者的拥护者
he fashions himself a champion for the downtrodden.
村子里的每个人 都尽力说服他放弃愚蠢的行为
Everyone in his village tries to convince him to give up his lunacy,
甚至烧毁了他私人图书馆里一些耸人听闻的书
going so far as to burn some of the lurid books in his personal library.
但是 唐•吉诃德并没有停止
But Don Quixote is unstoppable.
他穿上旧的发光的盔甲
He dresses up in old shining armor,
骑着他的瘦马 为追寻荣耀而离开了村庄
mounts his skinny horse, and leaves his village in search of glory.
塞万提斯的小说以剧集的形式展开
Cervantes’ novel unfolds as a collection of episodes
详细讲述了英勇骑士的灾祸
detailing the mishaps of the valiant knight.
不同于那些骑士精神的书 甚至一切其它先前的小说
Yet unlike the chivalry books and perhaps all other prior fiction,
塞万提斯的小说深刻揭示了 角色的内心世界
Cervantes’ story deeply investigates the protagonist’s inner life.
唐•吉诃德随着故事的发展而逐渐成熟
Don Quixote matures as the narrative develops,
经历一个显著的转变
undergoing a noticeable transformation.
这一文学启示使许多学者称《唐·吉诃德》 为第一部现代小说
This literary revelation has led many scholars to call Don Quixote the first modern novel.
而且这一角色的成熟不是独自发展的
And this character development doesn’t happen in isolation.
在早期 和唐•吉诃德一起的 还有一位叫 桑丘•潘萨的侍从
Early on, Don Quixote is joined by a villager-turned-squire named Sancho Panza.
桑丘和唐•吉诃德完全处在对立面上
Sancho and Don Quixote are a study in opposites:
一个是理性现实主义 另一个是理想主义
with one as the grounded realist to the other’s idealism.
他们生气勃勃 不断演变的友谊
Their lively, evolving friendship is often credited
常常被认为是英雄和伙伴关系的雏形
as the original hero and sidekick duo,
启发了几个世纪的小说中的伙伴关系
inspiring centuries of fictional partnerships.
《唐•吉诃德》是一个巨大的成功
Don Quixote was a huge success.
很多版本在十七世纪的欧洲出版
Numerous editions were published across Europe in the seventeenth century.
甚至在美国 一个教会禁止一切有罪分心物(小说)的地方
Even in the Americas, where the Church banned all novels for being sinful distractions,
读者们也享受着盗版的《唐•吉诃德》
audiences were known to enjoy pirated editions.
这本书如此畅销以至于读者吵吵着想看更多
The book was so well received that readers clamored for more.
在一名与塞万提斯竞争的作家尝试狗尾续貂赚钱之后
After a rival author attempted to cash in on a fake follow-up,
塞万提斯发布了官方续集作为回应
Cervantes released the official sequel in response.
现在(续集)跟第一卷一起出版
Now published alongside the first volume as a completed text,
作为一个完成的作品 第二卷从 原来的断点开始
this second volume picks up where the original left off,
到现在 唐•吉诃德和桑丘已成为民间英雄
only now Don Quixote and Sancho have become folk heroes.
就像在现实生活中一样 塞万提斯把他
Just as in real-life, Cervantes included
小说的成功融入到角色世界当中
his novel’s success in the world of his characters.
这种非传统的元意识 创造了哲学的复杂性
This unconventional meta-awareness created philosophical complexity,
就像骑士和他的侍从 思考着他们故事的意义
as the knight and his squire ponder the meaning of their story.
很遗憾 塞万提斯只卖了这本书版权的一小部分
Unfortunately,Cervantes had sold the book’s publishing rights for very little.
他因名望而死
He died rich in fame alone.
但他的作品里有创作力
But his treatise on the power of creativity and individualism
和激发个性的艺术 文学 流行文化 甚至政治改革
has inspired art,literature, popular culture, and even political revolution.
《唐•吉诃德》表明我们的想象大大指引着我们的行动
Don Quixote argues that our imagination greatly informs our actions,
让我们有能力做出改变并让我们成为真正的人
making us capable of change, and, indeed, making us human.
如何运用你的创造力?
How do you exercise your creativity?
思考这部戏剧中的思想来想好如何开始
Check out this plays for some ideas for how to started it.
学习更多 伊兰·斯塔文斯授课 阿维·奥费尔指导
Learn More Lesson by Ilan Stavans. Directed by Avi Ofer.
伊兰·斯塔文斯讲述
Narration by Ilan Stavans

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塞万提斯在怎样的背景下创作了《唐·吉诃德》,唐·吉诃德讲述了怎样的故事,有什么独特之处?塞万提斯和《唐·吉诃德》又有了怎样的后果?短短的视频为你解答

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