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为什么要读但丁的《神曲》?

Why should you read Dante’s “Divine Comedy”? - Sheila Marie Orfano

啊 人类 你生来就是高飞的 为何仅因微风稍许就坠落?
——阿利盖利·但丁 《神曲》
“Abandon all hope, ye who enter here… ”
“入此门者 当放弃一切希望”
Inscribed above the Gate of Hell,
这句话镌刻在地狱之门上
these ominous words warn dark tidings for Dante
在但丁坠入地狱时
as he begins his descent into inferno.
这些不详之词给他以黑暗的警示
Yet despite the grim tone,
尽管语气如此令人生畏
this prophecy sets into motion what is perhaps the greatest love story ever told;
但此预言开启了史上最伟大的爱情故事之一
an epic journey that encompasses both the human and the divine.
一段围绕人和神展开的史诗般旅程
But for Dante to reach benevolent salvation,
但对但丁而言 想要获得仁慈的救赎
he must first find his way through Hell.
他必须先通过地狱
This landscape of torture is the setting for “Inferno,”
这些折磨的景象是《地狱》的基调
the first in a three-part narrative poem
《地狱》是《神曲》的第一部分
written by Dante Alighieri in the 14th century.
是但丁在14世纪写的
Casting himself as the protagonist,
但丁把自己塑造成主角
Dante travels deeper and deeper into Hell’s abyss,
而后 他逐渐深入地狱的深渊
witnessing obscene punishments distinct to each of its nine realms.
目睹了九层地狱的酷刑
Beginning in Limbo, he travels through the circles of Lust, Gluttony, Greed, Wrath,
他从灵薄狱开始 逐个经过淫欲 饕餮 贪婪 愤怒
Heresy, Violence, and Fraud,
异教 强暴和欺诈地狱
to the horrific ninth circle of Treachery,
到达恐怖的第九层背叛地狱
where sinners are trapped under the watchful eyes of Satan himself.
有罪之人被困于此 恶魔撒旦亲自监视他们
The following two parts, “Purgatorio” and “Paradiso,”
在后面的《炼狱》和《天堂》篇章里
continue Dante’s journey,
但丁继续自己的旅程
as he scales the Mount of Purgatory
他随后登顶炼狱之山
and ascends the nine celestial spheres of Heaven.
最终登上了九重天堂
Written together over 10 years, these 3 sections comprise the “Divine Comedy”–
《神曲》的三个篇章历时十余年完成
an allegorical imagining of the soul’s journey towards God.
富有寓意地描绘了灵魂走向上帝之旅
But Dante’s “Divine Comedy” is more than just religious allegory.
然而但丁的《神曲》不只是宗教寓言故事
It’s also a witty, scathing commentary on Italian politics.
也是对意大利政治诙谐 尖锐的评论
A soldier and statesman from Florence,
身为来自佛罗伦萨的军人 政治家
Dante was staunchly faithful to God,
但丁坚定地信仰上帝
but often critical of the Roman Catholic Church.
但是却经常批判罗马天主教会
He particularly disliked its rampant nepotism and practice of simony,
他非常讨厌罗马天主教会任人唯亲 买卖圣职
the buying and selling of religious favours such as pardons from sin.
以及诸如买卖赎罪券这样的宗教行为
Many groups took advantage of these corrupt customs,
许多团体从这些腐败的风气中获利
but few supported them as much as the Guelfi Neri, or Black Guelphs.
但很少有团体像黑归而菲那样明目张胆
This was a political and religious faction
这是一个宗教政权派系
which sought to expand the pope’s political influence.
试图扩大教皇的政治影响力
Dante was a member of the Guelfi Bianchi, or White Guelphs–
但丁是白归而菲的一员
who believed Florence needed more freedom from Roman influence.
他们认为佛罗伦萨需要更多的自由而非教会的影响
As a public representative for the White Guelphs,
作为白归尔菲的公开代表
Dante frequently spoke out against the pope’s power,
但丁经常公开发表反对教皇统治的言论
until the Black Guelphs leveraged their position
直到1302年 黑归尔菲利用其地位
to exile him from Florence in 1302.
将但丁从佛罗伦萨驱逐
But rather than silencing him,
但这并没有让他从此沉默
this lifelong exile led to Dante’s greatest critique of all.
终生流放使但丁写出了最伟大的批判作品
Dishonored and with little hope of return,
尽管但丁身败名裂 归国无望
the author freely aired his grievances with the Church and Italian society.
但他自由地表达着对教会和意大利社会的不满
Writing the “Divine Comedy” in Italian,
但丁用意大利语写《神曲》
rather than the traditional Latin of the educated elite,
而不是用代表教育精英的传统拉丁文
Dante ensured the widest possible audience for his biting political commentary.
目的是让尽可能多的读者看到他尖锐的政见
In the “Inferno’s” circle of the Wrathful,
在《地狱》篇的愤怒地狱中
Dante eagerly witnesses sinners
但丁热切地亲眼看着罪人们
tear Black Guelph Filippo Argenti limb from limb.
将黑归尔菲菲利普·阿根提的肢体撕裂
In the circle of Fraud,
在欺诈地狱中
Dante converses with a mysterious sinner
但丁和一个神秘罪人对话
burning in the circle’s hottest flames.
这个神秘罪人被最灼热的火焰炙烤着
He learns that this is Pope Nicholas III,
但丁发现此人是教皇尼古拉三世
who tells Dante that his two successors will take his place when they die—
他告诉但丁 他的两个继任者死后会替换他接受炙烤
all three guilty of simony and corruption.
三人都有买卖圣职和贪腐之罪
Despite the bleak and sometimes violent imagery in “Inferno,”
尽管《地狱》的描述凄凉阴冷 夹杂暴力
the “Divine Comedy” is also a love story.
《神曲》却也是一部爱情故事
Though Dante had an arranged marriage
虽然但丁有过包办婚姻
with the daughter of a powerful Florentine family,
曾和一个家族显赫的佛罗伦萨女人结婚
he had also been unrequitedly in love with
但他从九岁起
another woman since he was nine years old:
就一直不求回报地爱着另一个女人
Beatrice Portinari.
贝雅特丽齐·波蒂娜丽
Despite allegedly meeting just twice,
据说 尽管只见过两次
she became Dante’s lifelong muse,
但她却成为但丁一生的缪斯女神
serving as the inspiration and subject for many of his works.
成为了他很多作品的灵感和主题
In fact, it’s Beatrice who launches his intrepid journey into the pits of Hell
事实上正是贝雅特丽让他无畏地踏入地狱深渊
and up the terraces of Mount Purgatory.
然后登上炼狱之山的阶梯
Portrayed as a powerful, heavenly figure,
她被描绘成强大的天国之人
she leads Dante through “Paradiso’s” concentric spheres of Heaven
带领但丁穿过《天堂》篇的天堂之域
until he is finally face-to-face with God.
直到但丁最终和上帝相见
In the centuries since its publication,
在其出版后的几个世纪里
the “Divine Comedy’s” themes of love, sin, and redemption
《神曲》中爱情 罪恶和救赎的主题
have been embraced by numerous artists–
被许多艺术家所赞赏
from Auguste Rodin and Salvador Dali,
从奥古斯特·罗丹 萨尔瓦多·达利
to Ezra Pound and Neil Gaiman.
埃兹拉·庞德到尼尔·盖曼
And the poet himself received his own belated, earthly redemption in 2008,
而他本人也在2008年得到了迟来的尘世救赎
when the city of Florence finally revoked Dante’s antiquated exile.
佛罗伦萨最终撤销了但丁旧时的流放

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视频概述

本视频介绍了但丁写《神曲》的目的及背景故事

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收集自网络

翻译译者

安大人

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审核员RYAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YbCEWSip9pQ

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