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为什么你应该读《罪与罚》

Why should you read “Crime and Punishment”? - Alex Gendler

对于心思深沉 十分聪慧的人来说 痛苦和磨难总是无可避免
——拉斯柯尼科夫 费奥多尔·陀思妥耶夫斯基《罪与罚》
What drives someone to kill in cold blood?
是什么让一个人成为冷血杀手?
What goes through the murderer’s mind?
杀手脑子里在想些什么?
And what kind of a society breeds such people?
什么样的社会里会滋生这样的人?
Over 150 years ago,
150多年前
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky took these questions up
费奥多尔·米哈伊洛维奇·陀思妥耶夫斯基在一本小说中谈到了这些问题
in what would become one of the best-known
这本小说是俄国文学史上
works of Russian literature:
最著名的文学作品之一:
“Crime and Punishment.”
《罪与罚》
First serialized in a literary magazine in 1866,
1866年 这本小说开始在一本文学杂志上连载
the novel tells the story of Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov,
故事的主人公是罗迪翁·罗曼诺维奇·拉斯柯尔尼科夫
a young law student in Saint Petersburg.
他很年轻 在圣彼得堡学法律
Raskolnikov lives in abject poverty,
拉斯柯尔尼科夫很穷
and at the start of the story
故事一开始
has run out of funds to continue his studies.
他就已经没钱继续学业了
Letters from his rural home only add to his distress
他家在农村 家里的来信让他更加沮丧
when he realizes how much his mother and sister
因为他意识到妈妈和妹妹
have sacrificed for his success.
为了支持他追求成功牺牲了很多
Increasingly desperate
越来越绝望的他
after selling the last of his valuables
把自己最后一个值钱的物件
to an elderly pawnbroker,
当给年迈的当铺老板后
he resolves on a plan
他下定决心
to murder and rob her.
打算杀人劫财
But the impact of carrying out this unthinkable act
但这个令人匪夷所思的行为
proves to be more than he was prepared for.
所带来的后果 超出了他的预料
Though the novel is sometimes cited as
虽然这本小说有时候被看作是
one of the first psychological thrillers,
最早的心理恐怖小说之一
its scope reaches far beyond Raskolnikov’s inner turmoil.
但小说内容并未局限于拉斯柯尼科夫的内心挣扎
From dank taverns to dilapidated apartments
从昏暗的酒馆到破败的公寓
and claustrophobic police stations,
到密不透风的警察局
the underbelly of 19th century
陀思妥耶夫斯基用尖刻的叙述
Saint Petersburg is brought to life
将19世纪圣彼得堡的阴暗面
by Dostoyevsky’s searing prose.
刻画得栩栩如生
We’re introduced to characters such as Marmeladov,
小说还向我们呈现了其他一些角色 比如马梅拉多夫
a miserable former official
他是个因为酒瘾
who has drank his family into ruin,
毁了家庭的公务员
and Svidrigailov,
还有史维德里盖洛夫
an unhinged and lecherous nobleman.
一个精神错乱 淫秽好色的贵族
As Raskolnikov’s own family arrives in town,
拉斯柯尼科夫的家人来到圣彼得堡后
their moral innocence
他们的单纯天真
stands in stark contrast
跟这里堕落的人们
to the depravity of those around them,
形成了鲜明对比
even as their fates grow increasingly intertwined.
就算他们的命运不断交织 这种对比依旧存在
This bleak portrait of Russian society
对于俄罗斯社会的阴冷刻画
reflects the author’s own complex life experiences
反映了作者自身复杂的人生经历
and evolving ideas.
以及不断发展变化的思想
As a young writer who left behind
费奥多尔作为一个年轻作家
a promising military career,
放弃了在军队的大好前途
Fyodor had been attracted to ideas of socialism and reform,
被社会主义和改革思想所吸引
and joined a circle of intellectuals
加入了一个知识分子的圈子
to discuss radical texts banned by the Imperial government.
讨论被帝国政府禁了的那些激进著作
Upon exposure,
被发现后
members of this group, including Dostoyevsky, were arrested.
包括陀思妥耶夫斯基在内的一些组织成员被捕
Many were sentenced to death,
很多人都被判了死刑
only to be subjected to a mock execution
结果却经历了一次模拟处决
and last-minute pardon from the Tsar.
在最后一刻获得了沙皇的赦免
Dostoyevsky spent the next four years in a Siberian labor camp
陀思妥耶夫斯基之后在西伯利亚的劳改所待了4年
before being released in 1854.
1854年被释放
The experience left him with a far more pessimistic view of social reform,
这次经历使他对社会改革持更消极的态度
and his focus shifted toward spiritual concerns.
转而关注精神方面的事情
In the 1864 novella “Notes from Underground,”
在1864年的中篇小说《地下室手记》中
he expounded on his belief that
他详述了自己的观点
utopian Western philosophies
即乌托邦式的西方哲学
could never satisfy
永远无法满足
the contradictory yearnings of the human soul.
人类灵魂矛盾重重的渴望
“Crime and Punishment” was conceived and completed the following year,
第二年他构思并完成了《罪与罚》
picking up on many of the same themes.
涉及了很多类似的主题
In many ways,
从很多角度来说
the novel follows a common narrative thread
这本小说采用了常见的叙事线
where a promising youth
一个前途光明的年轻人
is seduced and corrupted
在危机重重的都市生活中
by the dangers of urban life.
受到诱惑 变得堕落
But its social critique cuts far deeper.
但小说对社会的批判并未止步于此
Raskolnikov rationalizes that
拉斯柯尼科夫为自己开脱
his own advancement at the cost of
他认为 为了自己的未来
the exploitative pawnbroker’s death
牺牲剥削别人的当铺老板
would be a net benefit to society.
对社会有益无害
In doing so,
他的这种做法
he echoes the doctrines of egoism and utilitarianism
跟陀思妥耶夫斯基同时代的很多知识分子
embraced by many of Dostoyevsky’s contemporary intellectuals.
所认可的利己主义与功利主义是相似的
And in believing that his intelligence
拉斯柯尼科夫相信自己的智识
allows him to transcend moral taboos,
足够让他超脱道德禁忌
Raskolnikov cuts himself off from his own humanity.
他割舍了自己的人性
Yet although the book is deeply concerned with morality,
虽然小说内容涉及很多道德问题
“Crime and Punishment” never comes across as merely moralizing,
《罪与罚》绝对不只是道德训诫
with each character given their own distinctive and convincing voice.
每一个角色的观点都是独特且有说服力的
One of the most remarkable things about “Crime and Punishment”
《罪与罚》最突出的特点之一在于
is its ability to thrill
虽然这场谋杀的详情
despite the details of the central murder
在第一幕就交代清楚了
being revealed in the first act.
但这本小说还是很惊悚
Raskolnikov’s crime is clear.
拉斯柯尼科夫的“罪”无可辩驳
But it’s only through Dostoyevsky’s gripping account
但通过陀思妥耶夫斯基扣人心弦的叙述
of the ensuing social and psychological turmoil
通过接连发生的社会和心理动荡
that we learn the true nature of his punishment–
我们才了解到了他的“罚”究竟是什么
and the possibility of redemption.
以及他还有没有可能获得救赎

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简要介绍了陀思妥耶夫斯基的《罪与罚》

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