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海参为什么这么贵? – 译学馆
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海参为什么这么贵?

Why Sea Cucumbers Are So Expensive | So Expensive

青瓜一公斤一般不到3美元
Narrator: Cucumbers usuallycost under $3 a kilo.
但海参却贵得惊人 每公斤要3000美元以上
But sea cucumbers can setyou back over $3,000 a kilo.
其实 由于它们非常昂贵
In fact, they’re so valuable
有人甚至愿意冒着生命危险只为捕获一枚海参
people will risk theirlives to get ahold of one.
尽管海参其貌不扬
They might not look it, but sea cucumbers
但它们却是一种非常的独特生物
are pretty special creatures.
不信可以问他 Steven Purcell
Just ask this guy, Steven Purcell,
他是世界上对海参最了解的人之一
one of the world’s foremostexperts on sea cucumbers. Purcell:
它们很神奇
They’re quite strange animals.
它们没有四肢 没有眼睛
They don’t have any limbs,they don’t have any eyes.
它们有嘴巴和肛门
They have a mouth and they have an anus
以及嘴巴和肛门之间的器官
and a whole bunch of organs in between. Narrator:
这种奇妙的动物
These otherworldly animals
在亚洲数百年来被视作佳肴
have been prized as a delicacyin Asia for centuries,
只有最富贵的阶层才可以享用
where the wealthiest classwould eat the animals
也是一种高蛋白的营养食材
as a nutritious high-protein treat.
直到上世纪八十年代 人们对海参的需求才突然激增
But it wasn’t until the1980s that demand exploded.
中国的中产阶级不断扩大 更多的人能够消费得起海参了
A growing middle class in China meant more people could afford the luxury. Today,
现在的海参 一般是做成干货 放在精美的包装里
they’re typically driedand packaged in ornate boxes,
可以用来送礼 或在特别场合款待宾客
then given as gifts andserved on special occasions. So,
所以 包装越精美 海参长得越奇特 就越好
the fancier and moreunusual-looking, the better.
也越贵
And more expensive.
其实
It turns out. Purcell:
海参的刺越多 就越贵
The spikier theanimals, the higher the price. Narrator:
海参有1250种
And of the1,250 different species
其中最贵的是日本海参
of sea cucumber in the world, the Japanese sea cucumber takes the cake. Purcell:
就像某种神秘的巨龙
Imagine somesort of mystical dragon
身上长了许多尖刺
slug with all these sortof spikes coming out of it. Narrator:
日本海参每公斤3500美元
At up to $3,500 a kilo,
是市场上最贵的海参
it’s the most expensivesea cucumber on the market.
跟其他种类的海参相比起来 例如金沙海参 乌龙海参
Compared to other varieties,like the Golden Sandfish, Dragonfish,
以及黄玉海参
and Curry Fish.
即便只是在亚马逊上购买普通品种的海参
And even if you order acommon species on Amazon,
一碟价格也超过170美元
you could still pay over $170 for a plate.
除了外表 海参行家看重的还有它的厚度
Besides presentation, cucumberconnoisseurs also value thick,
口感 以及不那么重要的 风味
chewy bodies, andto a lesser extent, taste.
但吃海参的体验
But the experience of eating them
只是海参吸引人的一部分原因
is only part of their appeal.
海参还富含
Turns out sea cucumberscontain high levels
岩藻糖化糖胺聚糖
of a chemical calledfucosylated glycosaminoglycan
亚洲人一直以来
in their skin, which peopleacross Asia have been using
都应用这种物质来治疗关节炎 几百年来一直如此
to treat joint problems likearthritis for centuries,
而近年来在欧洲
and more recently in Europe,where people are using it
人们应用该物质来治疗某些癌症 减少血栓
to treat certain cancersand to reduce blood clots.
所以海参现在在世界各地都受到追捧
The sea cucumber crazenow comes from all sides.
在亚洲 对海参的需求
You have the originalAsian delicacy demand
在上世纪八十年代就已开始激增
that started in the 1980s,and the new interest
而近年来西方制药公司对海参也越来越感兴趣
from Western pharmaceutical companies.
面对需求激增的情况
In response, nations have clamored
各国争相捕捞当地品种
to harvest their local species.
从摩洛哥到美国再到巴布亚新几内亚
From Morocco to the UnitedStates to Papua New Guinea,
人人都想从海参贸易分一杯羹
everyone wants in onthe sea cucumber trade. Purcell:
捕捞像瘟疫一样迅速蔓延
It’s just spread like a contagion
世界各地都是如此
from one country to another. Narrator:
例如 从1996年到2011年
For example, from 1996 to 2011,
捕捞海参的国家的数量
the number of countriesexporting sea cucumbers
从35个激增到83个
exploded from 35 to 83.
但不幸的是 海参无法承受这样的捕捞
But unfortunately, sea cucumberscouldn’t handle the strain.
例如 在墨西哥尤卡坦
In Yucatan, Mexico, for example,
捕捞者发现
divers saw a 95% drop in their harvest
仅在2012年到2014年间 捕获量就剧减了95%
just between 2012 and 2014,
大家都面临同样的问题
and that’s a problem for everyone.
一是因为海参捕捞量越大
For one, because the moresea cucumbers are harvested,
海里所剩的海参就越少 价格也就越贵
the rarer and more expensive they become.
海参平均价格在2011年到2016年间上涨了17%
Average prices rose almost 17% worldwide between 2011 and 2016.
而海参数量越稀少
And the rarer these animals get,
捕捞者就要潜到越深的海底捕捞海参
the deeper divers areswimming to find them.
这是相当危险的
That’s when fishing gets dangerous. Purcell:
在有些国家 海参捕捞者
Some countries,they’re doing that
并未接受过潜水训练就下海作业了
without either a lot of training.
在一些热带国家
In some of the tropical countries,
很多人因为减压病瘫痪了
you’re getting a lot of people either becoming paralyzed through decompression sickness. Narrator:
截至目前 尤卡坦至少有40人
So far, atleast 40 Yucatan divers
因为潜水捕捞海参而丧生
have died trying to harvest sea cucumbers.
随着需求继续增加
And as demand continues to increase,
情况只会越来糟糕
the problem is only getting worse.
在人们捕捞的70多个海参品种里面
Of the 70 or more speciesof exploited sea cucumbers,
有七种已被列为濒危
7 are now classified as endangered,
原因都是过度捕捞
all through exploitation, forcing
世界上很多渔场因此关闭
numerous fisheries worldwide to shut down
与此同时也破坏了当地的经济
and damaging localeconomies in the process. So,
那为何不养殖海参呢
why not farm sea cucumbers
野生的就让它们自由生长
and leave the wild ones alone? Well,
说来容易做起来难
it’s easier said than done,
很多海参幼虫在成熟前就会死亡
since many larvae diebefore reaching maturity,
成活的海参则需要两到六年
and those that do survivetake two to six years
才能长到收成的大小
to grow to a marketable size.
但也已经有几个品种的海参养殖
That said, aquaculture for a few varieties
渐渐发展起来了
has started to take off.
例如昂贵的日本海参
Like with that fancyJapanese sea cucumber. Purcell:
中国的海参养殖已经发展成了几十亿的市场
There’s now aquaculturein China in the billions. Narrator:
希望更多的品种也能人工养殖
Hopefully morespecies will be farmed
而不是野生捕捞
instead of fished in the future,
即便不是为了保护本地经济
if not to protect local economies
促进潜在抗癌药物的研发
and help develop potentially life-saving drugs,
至少也能够保护这种神奇的生物
then at least to preserve afascinatingly bizarre animal.

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海参为何这么贵?海参的现状如何?海参的未来如何?

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