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为什么学校应该让青少年每天晚点来上学呢? – 译学馆
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为什么学校应该让青少年每天晚点来上学呢?

Why school should start later for teens | Wendy Troxel

早上六点
It’s six o’clock in the morning,
外面天还是黑的
pitch black outside.
我14岁的儿子正在床上熟睡
My 14-year-old son is fast asleep in his bed,
一个青少年无意识的 深沉的睡眠
sleeping the reckless, deep sleep of a teenager.
我打开灯 把这个可怜的孩子摇醒
I flip on the light and physically shake the poor boy awake,
因为我知道 就像撕掉一张创可贴
because I know that, like ripping off a Band-Aid,
最好是尽快地解决它
it’s better to get it over with quickly.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我有一个朋友大叫“起火了” 仅仅是为了叫醒她的孩子
I have a friend who yells “Fire!” just to rouse her sleeping teen.
另一个实在没办法了
And another who got so fed up
不得不把冷水泼在她儿子头上
that she had to dump cold water on her son’s head
仅仅是为了让他从床上起来
just to get him out of bed.
这听起来很残忍
Sound brutal …
但是或许有几分熟悉?
but perhaps familiar?
每天早晨我问自己
Every morning I ask myself,
“我怎么能…”
“How can I —
“以我所知”
knowing what I know
“以我所行来谋生”
and doing what I do for a living —
“但却如此对待我的儿子呢?”
be doing this to my own son?”
要知道
You see,
其实 我是一个睡眠研究者
I’m a sleep researcher.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
因此我对睡眠了解很多
So I know far too much about sleep
并且深知少眠的后果
and the consequences of sleep loss.
我知道我剥夺了他作为一个处于快速成长中的青少年
I know that I’m depriving my son of the sleep he desperately needs
迫切需要的睡眠
as a rapidly growing teenager.
我也知道在他的生物钟到之前的
I also know that by waking him up
好几个小时叫醒他
hours before his natural biological clock tells him he’s ready,
可以说是强行剥夺了他的梦境
I’m literally robbing him of his dreams —
也就是一种睡眠与学习 记忆整合和情绪加工
the type of sleep most associated with learning, memory consolidation
之间的密切合作
and emotional processing.
但是并不只有我的孩子被剥夺了睡眠
But it’s not just my kid that’s being deprived of sleep.
在美国青少年中睡眠不足是十分普遍的
Sleep deprivation among American teenagers is an epidemic.
睡眠学家和儿科医生指出 仅有十分之一的孩子
Only about one in 10 gets the eight to 10 hours of sleep per night
每晚能确保有8~10小时的睡眠时间
recommended by sleep scientists and pediatricians.
现在 如果你想的是
Now, if you’re thinking to yourself,
哎呀 我做的不错 我的孩子每天有8小时睡眠呢
“Phew, we’re doing good, my kid’s getting eight hours,”
但我要提醒的是
remember,
8小时是建议的最少睡眠时间
eight hours is the minimum recommendation.
所以你仅仅是及格了而已
You’re barely passing.
8小时就好比是你在成绩单上得了个C
Eight hours is kind of like getting a C on your report card.
有许多因素导致这种社会现象
There are many factors contributing to this epidemic,
但青少年不能保证应有睡眠
but a major factor preventing teens from getting the sleep they need
事实上主要是社会公共政策的问题
is actually a matter of public policy.
而不是荷尔蒙 社交生活或者Snapchat
Not hormones, social lives or Snapchat.
在整个国家
Across the country,
许多学校于早上7:30或更早开课
many schools are starting around 7:30am or earlier,
尽管几大医疗组织认为
despite the fact that major medical organizations recommend
初高中不应早于8:30开始上课
that middle and high school start no earlier than 8:30am.
但这些早前实行的规定
These early start policies have a direct effect on how much —
直接影响了美国青少年的睡眠时间
or really how little sleep American teenagers are getting.
也使得孩子和父母们不得不在这一场注定要输的仗中
They’re also pitting teenagers and their parents
与自己的身体做对抗
in a fundamentally unwinnable fight against their own bodies.
在青春期
Around the time of puberty,
青少年经历了他们身体上生物钟的延迟
teenagers experience a delay in their biological clock,
而生物钟决定了什么时候我们是最清醒和最困乏的
which determines when we feel most awake and when we feel most sleepy.
生物钟的延迟一部分是由褪黑素释放过程中的转变导致的
This is driven in part by a shift in the release of the hormone melatonin.
青少年的身体等到晚上11点左右才释放褪黑素
Teenagers’ bodies wait to start releasing melatonin until around 11pm,
比我们观察到在成人和更年少的孩子身上出现的晚两个小时
which is two hours later than what we see in adults or younger children.
这意味着在生物学上 在早晨6点叫醒一个青少年
This means that waking a teenager up at 6am is the biological equivalent
等同于在凌晨4点叫醒一个成年人
of waking an adult up at 4am.
在我不得不4点起床的倒霉日子里
On the unfortunate days when I have to wake up at 4am,
我就像个僵尸一样
I’m a zombie.
整天浑浑噩噩
Functionally useless.
我不能清楚的思考
I can’t think straight,
很容易发脾气
I’m irritable,
我也许都不应该开车
and I probably shouldn’t be driving a car.
但许多美国青少年每天上学时正是这样的状态
But this is how many American teenagers feel every single school day.
事实上 我们可以说 许多
In fact, many of the, shall we say,
被我们归咎于青春期才有的不好的性格
unpleasant characteristics that we chalk up to being a teenager —
比如喜怒无常 暴躁 懒惰和情绪消沉
moodiness, irritability, laziness, depression —
其实是长期缺乏睡眠的产物
could be a product of chronic sleep deprivation.
对许多和长期睡眠缺失做抗争的青少年来说
For many teens battling chronic sleep loss,
他们的补偿措施 是通过喝加大杯的星冰乐
their go-to strategy to compensate is consuming large quantities of caffeine
或一杯接一杯的运动饮料
in the form of venti frappuccinos,
摄入大量的咖啡因
or energy drinks and shots.
所以本质上
So essentially,
我们的年轻人全是疲惫又兴奋着的
we’ve got an entire population of tired but wired youth.
“睡眠友好型上学时间”的推行者都明白
Advocates of sleep-friendly start times know
青少年是大脑快速发育的一个时期
that adolescence is a period of dramatic brain development,
尤其是大脑中
particularly in the parts of the brain
那些负责更为高级的思维处理的部分
that are responsible for those higher order thinking processes,
其中包括推理论证 解决问题和保持良好判断
including reasoning, problem-solving and good judgment.
换句话说 正是那些
In other words, the very type of brain activity that’s responsible
负责控制做出情绪化且冒险的行为的脑活动
for reining in those impulsive and often risky behaviors
才造就了青春期的特点
that are so characteristic of adolescence
才让孩子们和我们做父母的如此担忧
and that are so terrifying to us parents of teenagers.
孩子们知道 和我们其他人一样
They know that like the rest of us,
当未睡足他们所需的睡眠时间
when teenagers don’t get the sleep they need,
他们的大脑 身体和行为就会受到
their brains, their bodies and behaviors suffer
直接且持续的影响
with both immediate and lasting effects.
此时他们就不能集中精神
They can’t concentrate,
注意力急剧下降
their attention plummets
许多人甚至表现出轻度ADHD的行为迹象
and many will even show behavioral signs that mimic ADHD.
但是青少年睡眠不足造成的后果不仅仅体现在课堂上
But the consequences of teen sleep loss go well beyond the classroom,
更可怕的是
sadly contributing to many of the mental health problems
它导致了许多在青春期猛增的心理健康问题
that skyrocket during adolescence,
包括药物滥用
including substance use,
抑郁 和自杀行为
depression and suicide.
在我们和洛杉矶联合校区的青少年的合作中
In our work with teens from LA Unified School District,
我们发现在过去的一个月里 有睡眠问题的青少年
we found that teens with sleep problems
55%的程度上更可能有饮用酒精行为
were 55 percent more likely to have used alcohol in the past month.
在另一份对3000多名高中生的研究中
In another study with over 30,000 high school students,
研究者们发现 每缺少一个小时的睡眠
they found that for each hour of lost sleep,
感到伤心或绝望的几率会增加38%
there was a 38 percent increase in feeling sad or hopeless,
青少年自杀倾向会增加58%
and a 58 percent increase in teen suicide attempts.
如果这还不是最坏的
And if that’s not enough,
那不睡觉的学生面临的风险
teens who skip out on sleep are at increased risk
就是极有可能患上危害我们全体国民身体健康的疾病
for a host of physical health problems that plague our country,
包括肥胖症 心脏病和糖尿病
including obesity, heart disease and diabetes.
而将一本新制作的驾照颁发给一个睡眠不足的孩子
Then there’s the risk of putting a sleep-deprived teen,
让他来操控方向盘
with a newly minted driver’s license,
其风险在这里
behind the wheel.
研究表明每晚睡眠时间等于或少于五个小时
Studies have shown that getting five hours or less of sleep per night
就好比驾驶时血液中酒精含量超过交通法允许的量
is the equivalent of driving with a blood alcohol content above the legal limit.
“睡眠友好型上学时间”的推行者
Advocates of sleep-friendly start times,
和负责这一领域的研究人员
and researchers in this area,
已经证实了
have produced tremendous science
推迟每日上学时间存在巨大好处的科学合理性
showing the tremendous benefits of later start times.
这些研究发现是很明确的
The findings are unequivocal,
作为一个睡眠学家
and as a sleep scientist,
我很少如此确定地谈论一件事
I rarely get to speak with that kind of certainty.
在推行每日上学时间的地区 青少年保证了更多睡眠
Teens from districts with later start times get more sleep.
那些持反对意见的人可能认为
To the naysayers who may think that if schools start later,
每日上学时间推迟只会让孩子们熬夜熬得很晚
teens will just stay up later,
但事实是
the truth is,
孩子们的就寝时间是一样的
their bedtimes stay the same,
只是起床时间延后了
but their wake-up times get extended,
这样他们也就有了更多的睡眠
resulting in more sleep.
他们更愿意去上学
They’re more likely to show up for school;
有个地区 因为执行这一政策 学校的缺勤率降低了25%
school absences dropped by 25 percent in one district.
而且退学的人少了
And they’re less likely to drop out.
不出意外的是 他们的学业更好了
Not surprisingly, they do better academically.
可见这对于缩小成绩差距有实际意义
So this has real implications for reducing the achievement gap.
数学和阅读科目的标准化考试分数
Standardized test scores in math and reading
上升了两到三个百分点
go up by two to three percentage points.
这就和缩减班级三分之一的学生规模
That’s as powerful as reducing class sizes by one-third fewer students,
或者让一个能力强的好老师代替一个水平有限的老师来上课
or replacing a so-so teacher in the classroom
是一样的效果
with a truly outstanding one.
学生们的身心健康得到了改善
Their mental and physical health improves,
家庭也更幸福欢乐
and even their families are happier.
其实 谁不想从我们的青少年那儿感受到
I mean, who wouldn’t enjoy a little more pleasantness from our teens,
少一点的偏执任性 更多的欢乐友善呢
and a little less crankiness?
青少年群体甚至因为车祸发生率的下降
Even their communities are safer
而变得更加安全了
because car crash rates go down —
–一个地区减少了70%的事故
a 70 percent reduction in one district.
对于它带来的这些巨大的好处
Given these tremendous benefits,
你可能会想
you might think,
嗯 这不是明摆着的嘛 对吧?
well, this is a no-brainer, right?
那为什么我们公众没有意识到这个诉求呢?
So why have we as a society failed to heed this call?
反对推迟上学时间的论点通常是这样的
Often the argument against later start times goes something like this:
“我们为什么要为青少年而推迟上课时间?”
“Why should we delay start times for teenagers?
“我们应该让他们变得更顽强以应对现实世界”
We need to toughen them up so they’re ready for the real world!”
但是这就好比对一个两岁孩子的家长说
But that’s like saying to the parent of a two-year-old,
“不要让约翰尼打瞌睡””
“Don’t let Johnny nap,
“不然就说明他就还没做好上幼儿园的准备””
or he won’t be ready for kindergarten.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
推迟上学时间也面临着组织方面的诸多挑战
Delaying start times also presents many logistical challenges.
这不仅仅是对于学生和他们的家人
Not just for students and their families,
也是对于整个社会来说的
but for communities as a whole.
公交线路的升级
Updating bus routes,
交通费用支出的增加
increased transportation costs,
体育活动和体育业因此而受到的影响
impact on sports,
以及上学前和放学以后对青少年的照料
care before or after school.
随着人们不时开展关于学生上学时间的争论
These are the same concerns that come up in district after district,
全国各个地区的居民一次次
time and again around the country
出现了这些相同的担忧
as school start times are debated.
这些担忧是合情合理的
And they’re legitimate concerns,
但它们是我们要一同努力解决的问题
but these are problems we have to work through.
而不是我们
They are not valid excuses
没能做出对孩子日后发展有利的事的正当理由
for failing to do the right thing for our children,
而对孩子好的事就是让初高中早上上课时间改到八点半以后
which is to start middle and high schools no earlier than 8:30am.
并且在全国各地
And in districts around the country,
已经做出这项改变的地区 无论改革的程度如何
big and small, who have made this change,
人们会发现这几点忧虑通常很不容易显现
they found that these fears are often unfounded
却远比能改善学生身心健康 平时表现
and far outweighed by the tremendous benefits for student health
以及社会公共安全
and performance,
要重要得到多
and our collective public safety.
所以明天早晨
So tomorrow morning,
当我们碰巧将闹钟往后设置了一个小时
when coincidentally we get to set our clocks back by an hour
你就额外拥有了一小时的美梦时间
and you get that delicious extra hour of sleep,
一天似乎更长了
and the day seems a little longer,
也更加充满希望了
and a little more full of hope,
这个时候想一想睡眠的魔力
think about the tremendous power of sleep.
再想想 如果能让我们的孩子睡到自然醒
And think about what a gift it would be
让他们在学业中同时保持自身生物钟的平衡
for our children to be able to wake up naturally,
对他们来说 该是一份多么棒的礼物啊
in harmony with their own biology.
谢谢各位
Thank you,
祝大家今夜好梦
and pleasant dreams.

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视频概述

青少年睡眠不足是公共政策的问题?睡眠学家邀你一起来探究。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

chelsea

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审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TS6lFDVR-3g

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