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为什么安全的游乐场对儿童不好 – 译学馆
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为什么安全的游乐场对儿童不好

Why safe playgrounds aren't great for kids

当你想象一个游乐场时 它可能是这样子的
When you imagine a playground, chances are it looks something like this.
通常有着一个滑滑梯 一座过桥 还有一个尖尖的屋顶
There’s usually a slide, a bridge, and a high point with a domed roof.
这是一个游乐场必备的元素 像视频上的这些
That’s what makes this a playground, and this, and this.
但是这个呢
But what about this?
这可不是废物堆积场
This isn’t a junkyard.
它被人们称作冒险游乐场
It’s called an adventure playground.
这里 没有塑料制成的游戏设施
Here,there are no plastic play structures – just things
只有一些旧轮胎 木板 锤子和钉子之类的东西
like old tires, wood planks, hammers and nails.
像这样的地方 运用的是游乐场建筑中最有争议的一个理念
Places like this represent one of the mostdebated ideas in play architecture:
就是游乐场是用来给孩子们冒险的
that playgrounds should be designed to let kids take more risks.
现在这种让家长忧心忡忡的理念
Now,this nightmare for helicopter parents
已经成为美国游乐场的新宠
is the hottest new thing in American playgrounds,
因为越来越多的证据表明
because there’s growing evidence that play like this
孩子在这种环境下玩耍 会更为健康和安全
is a whole lot healthier — and safer — for kids.
他们可以拿非常危险的工具玩
They can play with very dangerous tools,
遇到危机时 也会自己解决它们
they can take really dangerous risks and overcomethem.
这有助于大幅地提高他们的自信
And this fills up a tremendous sense of self confidence
我觉得看着他们成长真是太有意思了
in themselves, which is really quite fascinating to watch.
这是Marjory Allen
That’s Marjory Allen.
她在上世纪中叶是一名英国景观设计师
She was a British landscape architect and
同时也是儿童福利倡导者
children’s welfare advocate around the middle of the century.
在1945年 她访问了哥本哈根
In 1945, she visited Copenhagen,
在这里她遇到了一位名叫Carl Theodor Sorensen的建筑师
where she met an architect named Carl Theodor Sorensen.
两年前 在德国占领丹麦期间 Sorensen就发现了一个问题
Two years earlier, during the German occupation of Denmark,Sorensen noticed a problem:
他邻居家的孩子们没有去游乐场玩耍
kids in his neighborhood weren’t using playgrounds.
实际上 他们几乎到处去玩
In fact, they were playing just about everywhere else
甚至是在建筑工地和爆破后的房屋那里玩耍
— even in construction sites and bombed out buildings.
所以 在一处哥本阿根郊外的住宅区
So in a housing development in the suburbs of Copenhagen,
Sorensen隔离出一块空地
Sorensen closed off an empty lot and filled it with
并且在里面放置了建筑材料 废弃物品和工具
building materials, discarded objects, and tools. Here,
孩子们可以挖土 堆房子 自己发明新玩法
kids could dig, build, and invent on their own.
游戏方式最终是由他们自己来设计的
The play structures were ultimately designed by the kids themselves.
Sorensen把那里称作垃圾游乐场 孩子和家长都爱它
Sorensen called it a junk playground — and kids and parents loved it.
当Marjory Allen返回英格兰后 她开始在伦敦设立与垃圾游乐场相同类型的游乐场
When she returned to England, Marjory Allen started opening similar playgrounds across London.
她还将其更名为冒险游乐场
And she renamed them: from junk to adventure.
从此以后 这类游乐场风靡全球
From there, they became a global phenomenon.
它们遍及明尼阿波李斯市 波士顿 多伦多 东京 休斯顿 伯利克 柏林
They spread to Minneapolis, Boston, Toronto,Tokyo, Houston, Berkeley, Berlin.
为了建造这些游乐场 设计师必须考虑到一个关键因素:可控风险
And to create these playgrounds, designershad to introduce a critical element: Controlled risk.
在这一背景下
In this context,
风险不等同于不可控风险
a risk isn’t the same thing as a hazard.
当你攀爬一棵很高的树 腐烂的树枝是不可控风险:这个威胁是预料不到的
When you’re climbing a tall tree, a rottenbranch is a hazard: the threat is unexpected.
但你爬多高就是一个可控风险:
But how high you climb is a risk:
它是可以控制的 需要你积极地作出决定去避免其发生
it’s manageable, and requires you to actively make a decision.
你可以把可控风险外分成六类:
You can break the elements of controlled risk down into six categories:
高度 速度 工具 危险元素 打闹
heights, speed, tools,dangerous elements, rough and tumble play,
以及藏起来或者迷路的能力
and the ability to disappear, or become lost.
一个好的冒险游乐场的设计需要考虑到这些因素
And a good adventure playground includes a mix of these.
而设计者也需要注意到空间的分割
Designers also focus on separation of space.
为了给孩子们一种自己发现探索的感觉
To give kids the feeling of discovering things on their own,
要设计得能让家长待在一旁 不去插手
parents have to stay out.
但也要顾及监护人的感受
That can mean installing a physical barrier — or providing things
为此 可以设置物理屏障 并提供休息室 咖啡厅 长椅
like restrooms, cafés, and seating, so that parental experience isn’t an afterthought.
最后 设计师应该提供能让孩子自由发挥的部分
Finally,designers fill it with loose parts.
例如放置如木板 木桶 砖头 工具箱之类的可操纵的工具
These are the manipulatable objects — the planks, barrels,
提供给孩子们玩耍
bricks, and tools — that fuel risky play.
这种设计理念是
The idea behind all these design elements is
孩子们会因为自己被认真对待 而表现的很好
that kids respond well to being treated seriously:
如果给他们这些危险的工具 让他们建造东西
if they’re presented with risky items with a serious functional purpose,
他们将会小心地操作 并且进行更多次试验
they’ll respond cautiously and conduct more experimentation.
但如果在过度的安全和静态的空间里
But if presented with an overly safe, static space,
他们经常会去寻找当前的环境没能提供的危险的刺激
they often wind up seeking dangerous thrills that the built environment fails to provide,
这可能造成比在冒险游乐场 还要高的受伤的风险
which can result in higher injury rates than risky play at adventure playgrounds.
在美国 游戏场为了不被起诉
In the US,a culture of lawsuit-proof playscape design
标准的游乐场都是设计成过度安全的
means that overly safe playgrounds are the norm.
它的设计理念是集中在
And design philosophy has focused on how to
怎样减少高度 运动量和尖锐物品的存在
reduce height, movement,and hard materials.
这并没让游乐场变得更好
That hasn’t made playgrounds better.
当Marjory Allen在1965年 参观美国游乐场时
When Marjory Allen visited American playgrounds in 1965,
她把它们称为”管理人员的天堂 孩子的地狱”
she called them “ an administrator’s heaven and a child’s hell.”
但最近冒险游乐场 开始在美国流行
But adventure playgrounds have recently begun to catch
这或许得益于近年倡导的自由活动理念
on in the US — perhaps due to an effort to introduce more unstructured play.
而让孩子自己建造东西 也带来了争议和批评
And their construction comes with a fair share of criticism.
“他们让孩子们用锤子和钉子玩
“ They’re making kids play with hammers and nails
那不是冒险 只是一份工作
— that’s not adventure, it’s just work.
他们哄骗孩子们给他们建造游乐场”
They’re tricking kids into building their own playground.”
冒险游乐场确实存在缺点
Adventure playgrounds do have downsides:
它们相当丑 还要占很大空间
They’re pretty ugly, they require a lot of space,
需要人力资源 需要维护
and they need resources to staff and maintain.
然而 不管哪种场地 都有让孩子受伤的几率
And as with any playground, there is opportunity for injury.
但风险游戏的理念 能够让孩子们生活得更好
But the underlying philosophy of risky play can help kids live better lives.
一方面 较危险的游乐场能促进孩子们进行更多活动
For one thing, riskier playgrounds encourage more activity.
一项将伦敦的冒险游乐场
A study comparing playgrounds in London,
与旧金山 洛杉矶和纽约的普通游乐场进行比较的研究
where risky play spaces are popular, to those in San Francisco, Los Angeles,
发现较危险的游乐场更受孩子欢迎
and New York found that children using London’s playgrounds
在那里玩的孩子们 活动量增加了18%
were up to 18 percent more physically active.
伦敦的游乐场也更加便宜 不易令孩子们受伤
The London playgrounds were cheaper and boasted fewer injuries, too.
多项研究表明 那些进行危险游戏的孩子们
And multiple studies have shown
有更佳的危险察觉能力 创造力和自尊心
that children who engage in risky play have better risk detection, creativity, and self esteem.
游乐场是唯一一个专门给孩子设计的建筑
The playground is one of the only kinds of architecture designed specifically for children.
如果在使用者看来 我们设定的标准模型很无趣
And if the standard model we’ve decided on is seen
这个标准模型就出现问题了
as boring by its users — that’s a problem.
好的设计可以解决这个问题(在孩子看来很无趣)即使那可能会有点危险
Better design can fix that — even if it’s a little risky.
为了做这个视频 我看了很多游乐场照片
I had to look through so many pictures of playgrounds for this story
于是我顺便使用Wix去建立一个网站
that I decided to use Wix to create a website
收集了我发现的所有丑陋和令人伤心的游乐场照片
collecting all of the ugliest and saddest pictures of playgrounds that I could find.
现在我就有一份完美的展品的
And now I have a perfectly curated arrangement
有在墓地旁边的游乐场
of pictures of playgrounds next to graveyards
或是可以滑入垃圾堆的游乐场
and slides leading into dumpsters,
以及这些孩子们喜欢的设施的照片
and whatever these kid-friendly statues are.
如果你在寻找一个简便的方法
If you’re looking for a simple way
去分享你关于毁坏的基础设施的热情
to share your passion about broken infrastructure
或是这段时间令你感兴趣的一切事物
or whatever it is that you’re into these days,
你都应该把它发到Wix上
you should absolutely head to Wix.
点击以下链接 去创造像这样的属于你自己的网站吧
To create your own website just like this, click the link below.
尽管Wix没有直接地改变关于我们的社会观点
Wix does not directly impact our editorial,
但他们的支持使此类视频能够发布
but their support makes videos like this possible.
所以 快来看看它吧
So check them out.

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视频概述

提倡建设垃圾游乐场(冒险游乐园)的原因以及其历史起源,它的理念就是家长应该放手一试,让孩子尽情发挥。很不错的,快来了解下吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Eric

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lztEnBFN5zU

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