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松露为什么那么贵 – 译学馆
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松露为什么那么贵

Why Real Truffles Are So Expensive | So Expensive

Luxury cousins of the mushroom,
蘑菇的奢华表亲——松露
truffles are an indulgent food enjoyed across the world.
是一件在世界范围内都被纵情享用的美味
But these fragrant fungi will cost you.
但是这些芳香的真菌可不便宜
In 2014, the world’s largest white truffle was flown
2014年 一家安保公司将全世界最大的
to New York accompanied by a security guard
白色松露通过飞机护送到了纽约
and sold at auction for $61,000.
在那里 它以61000美元的高价被拍卖
Discovered in Italy, this gigantic fungus
这枚巨大的松露是在意大利发现的
weighed almost 2 kilos.
重量接近2公斤
So, what is it that makes them so expensive?
那么 是什么原因让它们这么贵呢?
There are a lot of types of truffle.
松露有许多种类
There are at least 40 species, many of which aren’t edible,
至少有40种 其中许多是不可食用的
and new species have been discovered as recently as 2018.
在2018年 人们又发现了几个新品种
You’ve probably seen luxury truffle products
你可能在超市或高档饭店里
in supermarkets or fancy restaurants,
见过奢侈的松露制品
but the unique truffle flavor you recognize
但你记忆里独一无二的松露味道
might not be real truffle at all.
可能与真正松露的味道并不相同
Cheap truffle oil often hasn’t been
廉价的松露油通常
anywhere near a real truffle.
跟真正的松露味道相去甚远
Many cheaper truffle products use 2,4-dithiapentane,
许多廉价的松露制品用的是二甲硫基甲烷
a synthesized compound containing one of the main aromatic components of foot odor,
这是一种含有食物芳香的人工合成物
guaranteed to give it that “earthy” taste.
可以使松露制品拥有“天然的”滋味
Real truffles are seasonal and pricey,
红松露是季节性的 保存期很短
with a short shelf life.
因此十分昂贵
They were originally sniffed out using truffle pigs,
最早人们是利用“松露猪”来寻找松露的
but while pigs are very good at finding truffles,
但这些猪虽然很擅长寻找松露
they’re also very good at eating them, too.
它们也十分擅长吃松露
And these days, dogs are much more common
所以现在 人们更多地用狗来寻找松露
truffle-hunting companions.
[找松露的好伴侣]
These fungi can be found across the world,
松露世界各地都有 没有特定的产地
but they all require a very specific climate to grow.
但它们都只在特定的气候中生长
While different varieties may have
不同的种类可能
somewhat different requirements, one thing is certain.
对气候有不同的需求 但有一点是确定的
You can’t have truffles without trees.
没有树 就一定没有松露
James Feaver: Truffles are always found with trees,
松露总是长在树旁边的
and they have to be the right type of trees.
而且必须得是特定种类的树
Under the ground, the truffle is just the fruiting body,
在地底 松露就只会停留在子实体形态
so an equivalent to an apple.
和苹果一样
And we’ve also got a lot of then what we call
我们在一茶匙土壤里就找到了
the mycelium, microscopic-level threads,
一种我们叫做菌丝体的东西
and up to 100 meters in a teaspoon of soil.
它细不可见的菌丝加起来能达到一百米
And this mycelium is actually attached to the roots
菌丝体实际上就像
of a tree like the fingers of glove onto a hand.
手套包裹手指一样包裹着树根
And it sort of extends the reach of the tree out.
并且它一定程度上帮助树木延展
And it actually takes up water and nutrients
它还吸收水和营养物传输给树木
and passes them to the tree, and the tree gives it sugars
树随之返还给它生长所需的糖
in return, so to help the truffles, the fruit, develop.
帮助松露果实的生长
Narrator: Even when you have exactly the right conditions,
即使你处在天时地利人和的环境中
truffles aren’t guaranteed,
也不一定能找得到松露
and hunting them is a labor-intensive process.
寻找松露是一个劳动量极大的过程
Once you know where to look, you have to sniff out
一旦你知道去哪里寻找 你就要让狗定位它的位置
and dig up each truffle by hand,
然后用手挖出它们
and they can be tricky to find.
松露是很难找的
Feaver: Good boy, thank you, good boy, come!
Feaver:好孩子 谢谢 真棒 过来
So he just told us there it’s still in the ground.
所以他只是告诉我们地底下还有
So do I want to take it out of the ground or not?
那我是否想把它挖出来呢?
It all depends on if it’s ripe.
这全都取决于它是否成熟了
If it’s unripe, there’s no point in having it.
如果它没成熟 挖它就没有一点意义
So the nose comes into play.
这时候鼻子就派上了用场
And we actually sniff the ground for it.
我们得闻闻它周围的土
Narrator: It may take a while,
这可能得花点时间
but finding a good one can make it worth the work.
但如果找到一个好的 那一切都值了
Feaver: Yeah, that’s a nice one.
是啊 这是个优等品
Yeah, that’s probably about
是啊 它大概有
70, 80 grams.
七八十克

Narrator: Truffles also have a short season,
松露的生长期很短
often appearing for only a few months of the year.
通常一年里只出现几个月
And even when you do get your hands on them,
而且即使你确实挖到了它们
they don’t last for long.
它们也保存不了多长时间
Feaver: An unripe truffle, unlike a tomato,
一个未成熟的松露 跟番茄不一样
which you could cut from the vine
生番茄可以从藤蔓上切下来
and ripen on your windowsill,
然后放在窗台上等着它成熟
once the truffle is out of the ground, the clock is ticking.
一旦松露脱离了土壤 倒计时就开始了
So it’s just sort of slowly gonna degrade over time.
它开始慢慢降解腐烂
So we want to get it out to the customers nice and fast.
因此我们想让消费者在尽可能短的时间里得到它们
Narrator: After just five days out of the ground,
仅仅被挖出来五天
that pungent truffle smell will have halved.
松露浓烈的气味就减半了
You can farm many truffle varieties,
你可以种植许多种类的松露
besides the rare Italian whites.
除了稀有的意大利白松露
Many people have been successful
许多人曾经成功地
in setting up truffle orchards, but it’s not easy.
建造出了松露种植园 但这并不容易
Trees need to be planted in the right soil conditions,
树得在合适的土壤环境里生长
inoculated with truffle fungus,
还要与松露的真菌嫁接
and often irrigated constantly.
还需要经常浇水
It can take as long as six years
在你得到成熟的好松露以前
before you get a good truffle harvest,
可能需要花上六年的时间
and there’s no guarantee that the fungi will grow at all.
而且也不能保证一定能培育出真菌
So after all that effort, what do they actually taste like?
经历了这么多努力 松露吃起来到底是什么样呢?
Ju Shardlow: Ooh.

Claudia Romeo: Hm.

Leon Siciliano: The smell just made me think
它的气味让我以为
it was gonna be really strong.
尝起来味道会很重
The flavor is actually quite subtle.
但实际上它的口味是很清淡的
There’s a nuttiness there.
那里有小颗粒
There’s, like, an earthy flavor there.
就像是有种来自大地的味道
Ju: Actually quite light and fragrant.
实际上它的味道很清淡 很芳香
It tastes a lot nicer than it smells.
它尝起来比闻起来更香
It smells like damp socks.
它闻起来就像臭袜子
Claudia: That’s good.
很好吃
I mean, this is the first time I’ve actually eaten
我是说 这实际上是我第一次
a truffle by itself.
只吃松露本身
You know, it’s a bit like mushroom,
它尝起来有点像蘑菇
but it’s more of a meaty, meaty bite.
但口感更香醇一点
Narrator: These days, farming has taken over
这些年 人工种植已经逐渐成为
as our primary source of truffles,
主要的松露来源
and today, 70% of the world’s truffles are cultivated.
现在 世界上70%的松露都是人工培育的
Through the loss of woodland and climate change,
经历了土地的减少和气候变化
the number of wild truffles has decreased significantly.
野生松露的数量已经大大减少
Since the 19th century, production in France has fallen
与19世纪相比 法国松露的产量下降很多
from over 1,000 tonnes a season to just 30 tonnes.
从一季1000公吨到现在的一季30公吨
And climate change could mean that truffles will disappear
而且 气候变化意味着松露可能会
altogether in the future.
在未来完全消失
Feaver: The weather conditions are so important,
天气状况太重要了
not just immediately, over the whole season.
不仅仅是现在 而是整个季节里
We’re getting much lower numbers
我们收获的越来越少
and much lower average size.
收获的大小也越来越小
A truffle is about 70% water,
一个松露的含水量有70%
so it needs rainfall to help it grow.
所以它需要雨水来帮助生长
Some UK truffle scientists are thinking
一些英国的松露学家认为
that your traditional areas,
传统松露产地
the climate is gonna move further north,
都在向北方移动
and they’re not gonna have a truffle industry
而五十年以内
within I think perhaps 50 years.
他们可能就不会再有松露产业了
There’s threats, there’s opportunities,
现在有威胁 有机遇
but rain, we do need rain.
但最重要的是雨 我们需要雨
When we get a dry summer,
如果今年夏天很干燥
the holidaymakers, they’re delighted,
从事旅游业的人可能很开心
but I keep crossing my fingers
但我会祈祷
for a bit of rain every now and again.
时不时下一场雨

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视频概述

松露为什么那么贵?这个视频从松露的形成、口感、采集等方面做了介绍。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zoeyyyy1403

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审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQ1nY51txoA

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