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为什么宠物的大脑都这么小?

Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains

此视频由23andMe赞助
This video was sponsored by 23andMe.
嗨!我是MinuteEarth的艾米莉
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
人类驯养了可爱的狗狗
Domestication has puppified dogs,
毛茸茸的绵羊和奔腾的骏马
fluffified sheep, and spotified horses –
但几乎所有被驯化的动物都有一个
but there ’ s a less obvious physical change that
不大明显的相同点:
virtually all domesticated animals share:
缩小的大脑
shrunken brains.
相对比驯化前 鸭子的大脑缩小了15%
Duck brains have shrunk by about 15 %,
猫的大脑缩小了30%
cat brains by 30 %,
而猪的大脑居然缩小了35%
and pig brains by a whopping 35%.
我们甚至发现人工养殖的鳟鱼大脑也变小了
We’ve even found smaller brains in farmed trout.
这非常奇怪 因为通常来说
Which is weird, because in general,
动物的大脑和体型比例
the size of animals’ brains and the size of their bodies
密切相关
is super tightly linked –
螨虫的大脑比蚂蚁小
mites have smaller brains than ants,
蚂蚁的大脑比老鼠小
which have smaller brains than mice,
老鼠的大脑比大象小 等等
which have smaller brains than elephants, and so on.
同样的关系也存在于物种内部的个体身上
The same relationship exists for individuals within species.
所以举例来说
So, for example,
狼的体积越小大脑相对越小
small wolves have smaller brains than big wolves,
狗的体积越小大脑也越小
and small dogs have smaller brains than big dogs.
但是当你横向比较
But when you compare wolves and dogs,
相同体型的狼和狗时
between individuals of the same size,
你会发现狼拥有更大的大脑
the wolves have bigger brains,
这就与体型无关了
no matter what the body sizeis.
此外
What’s more,
在不同的家养动物中
across different domesticated animals,
大脑中负责监控外界信息
a disproportionate amount of the
并引起动物恐惧的
shrinkage happened in parts of the brain
部分区域都有了
that monitor information from the outside world
不同程度的缩小
and tell animals when and how to freak out –
动物大脑的恐惧区域有点像应急开关
sort of like the brain ’ s panic button.
我们知道 一般来说
We know that, in general,
那些有“更大”应急开关的动物
animals with bigger panic buttons
它们对战斗和逃离的反应更敏感
have a more sensitive fight or flight response,
而应急开关“较小”的动物天生就更加温顺
and animals with smaller panic buttons are naturally tamer.
所以也意味着它们更容易被人类驯服
So those are the ones we probably would have tried to domesticate.
通过将驯养的动物配种
And, by breeding the tamest animals with each other,
我们缩小了它们的应急按钮
we shrunk their panic buttons –
所以它们的大脑就更小了
and therefore their brains – even further.
总之
In short,
被驯化的动物
domesticated animals have
与人类形成了长期的伙伴关系
formed long-term partnerships with humanity
它们的大脑也在逐渐缩小
by literally losing their minds.
感谢23andMe赞助本视频
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video.
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you can learn all about your own ancestral history,
和你本人的基因健康状况
as well as other parts of your DNA story,
比如 基因是如何影响你的
like how your genes CAN influence everything
从你的面部特征到你的睡眠质量
from your facial features to your sleep quality.
现在就购买工具包来支持MinuteEarth吧
To get your kit, and show your support for MinuteEarth,
详情请访问23andMe.com/MinuteEarth
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There ’ s a special holiday offer now through December 26th;
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click the link in the description
为自己和家人订购基因检测工具包吧!
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视频概述

为什么家养的宠物对我们言听计从呢?是因为它们的大脑出问题了吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9Dj-xf3iVo

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