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谁是地球上最快的动物 – 译学馆
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谁是地球上最快的动物

Why peregrine falcons are the fastest animals on earth

当我谷歌“最快的动物”时 我找到了这个
When I googled the “fastest animal” this is what I got.
猎豹
A cheetah.
猎豹
A cheetah.
可能是对哺乳动物的偏爱吧
A little mammal bias, maybe?
地球上真正最快的动物 其最大速度是猎豹的3倍
The truly fastest animal on Earth has a max speed 3 times greater than the cheetah.
游隼可以以40到60公里的时速悠闲地在天空翱翔
Peregrine falcons can leisurely cruise through the skies between 40 and 60 miles per hour,
但他们向猎物俯冲时 时速可以超过200英里(322公里)
but when they’re diving toward their prey, they can reach speeds over 200 miles per hour.
也就是每秒293英尺(80米)
That comes out to 293 feet per second.
相当于1.2秒内飞过一个足球场的长度
It’s like flying the length of a football field in 1.2 seconds.
或这条哥伦比亚特区街区的长度
Or the length of this DC block.
那么游隼是怎么做到这么快的呢?
So how is it even possible for peregrines to dive this fast?
游隼有一只乌鸦那么大 重一到三磅
A peregrine falcon is around the size of a crow—weighing between one and three pounds
翼展可达到3.6英尺
with a wingspan up to 3.6 feet.
它们俯冲而下并在半空中捕获其他鸟类
They prey on other birds by dive-bombing them and snatching them mid-air.
当游隼进入俯冲状态或叫俯身时 首先看到的是
The first thing you see when a peregrine goes into its dive, also called a stoop, is their
它们子弹型的身体
bullet-shaped bodies.
注意游隼如何收起它的脚 拢起它的尾巴和翅膀
Notice how the peregrine tucks in its feet, and sweeps back its tail and wings.
这种流线型造型降低了风湍流使得机动性 高度和速度达到最大值
This streamlined figure reduces wind turbulence, maximizes maneuverability, lift, and speed
像是从空中切过一样
as it cuts through the air.
如果它的翅膀像鹰或猫头鹰一样宽阔话
It wouldn’t be able to do this nearly as efficiently if had broad wings like a hawk
就很难如此高效地俯冲了
or an owl.
游隼的翅膀尖且回折
But the peregrine’s wings are pointed and angled back.
它完全无槽的羽毛减少了飞行负担
And because of its stiff unslotted feathers, it experiences less drag—the wind would
而对其它鸟类 风会拉住松散的羽毛
pull on loose feathers on other birds.
游隼还有个大龙骨 也就是这个胸骨
Peregrines also have a large keel — that’s this breast bone.
龙骨越大 胸肌也就越大
A bigger keel supports stronger chest muscles.
敏锐的视觉让它们可以确认一英里外的猎物
Acute vision allows them to spot prey a mile away.
瞬膜或第三眼睑让它们在高速俯冲时仍能保持视力
The nictitating membrane, or third-eyelid, helps to maintain their vision in their high-speed dives,
分泌腺让它们的角膜在风中
and the secretory gland keeps their corneas from drying out because of all that
远离干燥
wind.
以上这些还不够 它们还要呼吸
But none of this would be possible if the peregrine couldn’t breathe.
游隼经受的速度会让大多数动物不能呼吸
The air speeds that Peregrine falcons experience while diving would make it impossible for
但它们的鼻孔中有一块骨头可以减慢空气流速
most animals to breathe, but they have a bone in their nostrils to slow down the airflow.
它们强壮的心脏可以每分钟跳动600到900次
They also have robust hearts that beat around 600 to 900 beats per minute.
所有鸟类都有比哺乳动物更高效的呼吸系统
All birds have a vastly more efficient respiratory system than mammals.
最终捕到她的猎物时 游隼要承受25倍重力
Then to finally catch her prey, the peregrine is pulling around 25 G’s coming out of a
与之相比 F-16战斗机飞行员在军演中只承受9倍重力而已
stoop—compare that to a F-16 fighter pilot who endures up to 9 G’s during some maneuvers.
这样的速度让游隼成为可怕的捕食者 但这不是它们
On speed alone peregrines are formidable birds of prey but it isn’t their only adaptation
唯一值得记录的特征
of note.
我们来自BBC地球系列的朋友用连续镜头展现了
Footage from our friends at BBC Earth shows where this wanderer has made its mark in some
在一些意想不到的地方这些漫游者的身影
unexpected places.
在北美地区 从濒临灭绝到迅速恢复
After a sharp recovery from near extinction in North America—bustling cities with soaring
大厦和教堂高耸林立的繁忙城市已成为众多游隼的新王国
skyscrapers and towering cathedrals have become many peregrine’s new kingdom;
高处的栖息处和丰满美味的鸽子让这里成为富饶的狩猎场
a plentiful hunting ground with high perches and deliciously plump pigeons.

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游隼才是地球上最快的动物,不是猎豹!!!

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