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日全食为什么会令人非常激动 – 译学馆
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日全食为什么会令人非常激动

Why people get so excited about a total solar eclipse

A solar eclipse happens when the moon’s shadow falls somewhere on the surface of Earth
当月球的阴影落在地球表面某处时 会发生日食
And a lunar eclipse is the opposite — when the Earth’s shadow falls on the moon
而月食则相反 它发生在地球的阴影落在月球上时
The two sections of the shadow, the dark umbra and the partially shaded penumbra,
阴影有两部分 黑色的本影和部分阴影的半影
their placement determines which type of eclipse we can see from Earth.
它们的位置决定了在地球上观测到的日食或月食种类
But not all eclipses are made equal.
但并非所有日食和月食大小都相同
The most spectacular, the one for your bucket list is a total eclipse of the sun.
在所有类型里 最壮观的是日全食
沃克斯观点
A total solar eclipse begins as a partial eclipse.
日全食以日偏食的形式开始
You’ll notice trees projecting the crescent sun,
你会发现从树叶间透射出的新月形太阳
and shadows becoming sharper than normal.
影子也比平时更加细长
The landscape darkens to a bluish-grey and you’ll start to feel the temperature drop.
景色变得蓝灰晦暗 你会感觉到温度下降
From the west, the moon’s shadow rushes toward you like a silent storm.
月球的阴影像沉默的风暴 从西边向你席卷而来
Look up
抬起头
and you’ll see the last sliver of the sun sparkling like a diamond ring,
你会看到最后一丝银色的阳光像钻石戒指般闪耀着
before it’s broken into a string of beads
由于月球地形崎岖
by the moon’s rough terrain.
最终太阳的光圈破碎成一串珠子的样子
Now you can see the pearly glow of the sun’s corona and
你会看到日冕发出珍珠般的光芒
the pink and red light from the hydrogen, gas of the chromosphere.
还有色球层氢气发出粉色和红色的光芒
Together these make up the sun’s outer atmosphere,
这些一起构成了太阳的外层大气
and a total solar eclipse is the only occasion you have to lay eyes on it.
日全食是唯一有机会用眼睛直视太阳的时机
This is totality and if you get a chance to see it, you should.
这是日全食 如果有机会看到它 你该把握这个机会
The moon orbits earth every 29.5 days,
月球绕地球公转周期为29.5天
But we don’t get eclipses every month.
但我们不是每月都能看到月食
That’s because the moon’s orbit is not in line with earth’s orbit.
这是因为月球的轨道和地球不在同一平面
it’s tilted about 5 degrees.
两者大约偏差5°
That doesn’t seem like much
似乎没差多少
but keep in mind
但请记住
that the scale of the model we’re showing to you is way off.
我们向你展示的这一尺度的模型忽略了这个角度
If the Earth and moon are this size, the distance between them should be around 10 ft.
若地球与月球像这样大 它们之间的距离应为10英尺左右
At this distance, 5 degrees is enough to keep the moon’s shadow off of Earth
在这样距离上 5°足以使月球的阴影离开地球
and the Earth’sshadow off the moon most months.
也能在大多数月份中 使地球的阴影离开月球
So why do we ever get eclipses?
我们究竟为何能看到日食和月食?
Because there are two points where the moon’s orbit crosses the sun’s plane, called nodes.
月球轨道穿过太阳系时有两个被称作“交点”的点
And as the Earth moves along its annual orbit, those points line up with the sun about twice a year.
地球绕太阳公转 交点每年有两次能与太阳连成一线
As the moon passes between the sun and Earth at that time, we get a solar eclipse.
当月球行至地球与太阳之间 三者共线 便形成了日食
When it’s behind Earth at that time, we get a lunar eclipse.
当月球行至地球后方 便会形成月食
There are a ton of orbital quirks that make predicting eclipses really complicated,
尽管大量轨道的巧合使日食和月食的预测变得很复杂
But in general we’ll have a few solar and a few lunar eclipses of some sort every year.
但一般来说 每年都能观察到许多不同种类的日食和月食
But you’re more likely to see a total lunar eclipse in your lifetime than a total solar one.
但比起日全食 你生命中更容易遇上月全食
The totality of a lunar eclipse can last well over an hour
月全食能持续一个多小时
and it’s viewable for anyone on the night side of earth.
地球上任何处于夜半球的人都能看到它
The moon often turns red during a total lunar eclipse
月全食时 月球通常呈现红色
Because our planet’s atmosphere scatters the bluer wavelengths of light,
这是因为地球大气层散射了蓝光
while the longer, redder wavelengths pass through.
而让波长更长的红光通过
Or to put it another way,
或者 换句话说
a total lunar eclipse projects all of the world’s sunsets and sunrises onto the moon.
月全食将地球上所有日出日落都投射到月球上了
Total solar eclipses seem much more rare because totality lasts just a few minutes
日全食似乎更罕见 因为它的整个过程只持续几分钟
And although Earth gets a total solar eclipse every 18 months on average,
尽管平均每18个月就会有1次日全食
Each one is only viewable by less than half a percent of Earth’s surface.
但地球上仅有不到一半的地方能看到日全食
Eclipse chasers travel all over the world
追踪观测日食月食的人走遍全球
to put themselves in the path of the shadow.
将自己置于通往阴影的道路上
In a total solar eclipse, the moon precisely covers the sun from the vantage point of some place on Earth.
在日全食中 月球从地球上某个特定位置遮住了太阳
This is possible because by coincidence,
月球能遮住太阳是源于巧合
the sun and the moon appear to be about the same size in our sky.
它们刚好在天空中呈现一样的大小
While the sun is 400 times bigger than the moon, it’s also about 400 times farther away.
尽管太阳比月球大400倍 但距离地球也远了400倍
But this alignment isn’t constant.
但这个比例并不是常数
the moon has an elliptical orbit.
月球轨道呈椭圆形
Its size varies about 12% throughout a month.
一个月内 这个比例的改变约有12%
When it’s closer to us, we can get total solar eclipses,
当月球更接近地球时 我们能看到日全食
but less than 30% of solar eclipses are total.
但所有日食事件中 日全食还不到30%
More often, we get partial eclipses, where the alignment is a bit off,
更多时候我们看到的是被部分遮挡的日偏食
or annular eclipses, where the moon is too far away to fully block the sun,
或是月球太远 不足以完全遮盖太阳
leaving a ring of sunlight around the moon.
在月球周围留下一圈阳光形成的日环食
In the far future
在遥远的未来
earth will only get annular and partial solar eclipses because our moon is moving further away.
由于月球越来越远 地球上将只能看到日环食和日偏食
We know that
我们知道这件事
because Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong left mirrors on the moon in 1969.
是因为1969年巴兹·奥尔德林和尼尔·阿姆斯特朗在月球上留下的镜子
Astronomers bounce lasers off those mirrors to measure the moon’s distance.
天文学家从镜子反射的激光测量地月距离
And that’s how they found out that the moon is moving away from Earth by more than 3 cm per year.
他们发现月球以每年3cm的速度远离地球
So in a billion years or so,
因此大约十亿年后
Whatever creatures live here will witness Earth’s very last total solar eclipse.
生活于此的所有生物都会见证地球最后一次日全食

钻石环效应
“We can see on the Radio One screen,
从一台我们能看到
A fantastic total solar eclipse taken from the pictures above the clouds
从云层上方拍摄的超棒的日全食

“This is just fantastic.”
这太棒了
A lot of early civilizations feared eclipses.
许多早期文明惧怕日食和月食
They were often seen as an attack on the sun or moon by the forces of darkness.
日食和月食通常被视为黑暗力量对太阳或月亮的攻击
But now that we understand our place in space,
但现在我们知道了地球在太空中的位置
eclipses are an occasion for awe, and for gratitude.
日食和月食就使人感到敬畏和感恩了
All over the galaxy rocks are casting shadows on other rocks.
所有银河系的星体都会在其它星体上透射自己的阴影
But only here, as far as we know, is there someone to notice them.
但就我们目前所知 仅有人类在关注它们

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介绍日食和月食的现象和形成原因

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视频来源

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