未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么人们会被错误信息欺骗

Why people fall for misinformation - Joseph Isaac

”谎言飞驰 真相跛足其后。” ——乔纳森·斯威夫特
In 1901, David Hänig published a paper
1901年 大卫·哈尼格发表的一篇论文
that forever changed our understanding of taste.
永久地改变了我们对味觉的理解
His research led to what we know today as the taste map:
他的研究诞生了我们现在所谓的“味觉图”:
an illustration that divides the tongue into four separate areas.
一张把舌头划分为四个独立区域的示意图
According to this map,
如此图所示
receptors at the tip of our tongues capture sweetness,
舌尖感受甜味
bitterness is detected at the tongue’s base,
舌根觉察苦味
and along the sides, receptors capture salty and sour sensations.
舌头两侧则感知咸味和酸味
Since its invention, the taste map has been published
自诞生以来 味觉图被陆续刊登在了
in textbooks and newspapers.
各类教科书和报纸上
The only problem with this map, is that it’s wrong.
这张图唯一的问题是——它是错误的
In fact, it’s not even an accurate representation of what Hänig originally discovered.
事实上 它甚至不能准确的代表哈尼格原本的发现
The tongue map is a common misconception—
味觉图是个常见的错误观念——
something widely believed but largely incorrect.
虽广为人信 但大体上却不准确
So where do misconceptions like this come from,
那么像这样的错误观念是从何而来?
and what makes a fake fact so easy to believe?
虚假的“真相”为什么能让人如此轻易地信以为真?
It’s true that the tongue map’s journey begins with David Hänig.
没错 味觉图起源于大卫•哈尼格
As part of his dissertation at Leipzig University,
但是哈尼格读莱比锡大学时发表论文
Hänig analyzed taste sensitivities across the tongue for the four basic flavors.
分析的是舌头各部位对四种基本味道的敏感度
Using sucrose for sweet, quinine sulfate for bitter,
他用蔗糖代替甜味 用硫酸奎宁代替苦味
hydrochloric acid for sour, and salt for salty,
用盐酸代替酸味 用盐代替咸味
Hänig applied these stimuli
哈尼格用这些刺激
to compare differences in taste thresholds across a subject’s tongue.
来比较被试者舌头各处味觉阈值的差异
He hoped to better understand
他希望能更好地理解
the physiological mechanisms that affected these four flavors,
影响这四种味觉的生理机制
and his data suggested that
而他的数据显示
sensitivity for each taste did in fact vary across the tongue.
舌头各部分对每种味道的敏感度确实存在差异
The maximum sensation for sweet was located at the tongue’s tip;
舌尖对甜味最敏感
bitter flavors were strongest at the back;
舌根对苦味最敏感
salt was strongest in this area,
这个区域对咸味最敏感
and sour at the middle of the tongue’s sides.
而酸味敏感区则在舌头两侧的中间
But Hänig was careful to note that every sensation
但是哈尼格谨慎地指出
could also be tasted across the tongue,
舌头的各个部位都能尝出所有的味道
and that the areas he identified offered very small variations in intensity.
而他所划分出的区域之间敏感度差异非常小
Like so many misconceptions,
就像很多其他错误观念一样
the tongue map represents a distortion of its original source,
味觉图是对最初来源的一种曲解
however the nature of that distortion can vary.
然而这种曲解的本质可能存在差异
Some misconceptions are comprised of disinformation—
有些误解是由虚假信息构成的——
false information intentionally designed to mislead people.
这些错误信息意在用来误导人们
But many misconceptions, including the tongue map,center on misinformation—
但包括味觉图在内的很多误解 主要是虚假消息——
false or misleading information that results from unintentional inaccuracy.
无意间的不够精确导致了错误或误导的信息
Misinformation is most often shaped by mistakes and human error,
误导信息通常是由差错和人为失误造成的
but the specific mistakes that lead to a misconception
但是导致错误观念的具体错误
can be surprisingly varied.
可以有惊人的多样性
In the case of the tongue map,
在味觉图的例子里
Hänig’s dissertation was written in German,
哈尼格的学位论文是用德语写的
meaning the paper could only be understood by readers fluent in German
意味着能真正读懂这篇文章的只有精通德语
and well versed in Hänig’s small corner of academia.
且熟知哈尼格的学术细分领域的人
This kicked off a game of telephone
这开启了一场传话游戏
that re-shaped Häing’s research every time it was shared with outside parties.
每次和外行人士分享时 哈尼格的研究都会改头换面
Less than a decade after his dissertation,
他的学位论文发表后不到十年
newspapers were falsely insisting that experiments
报纸已经错误地坚称
could prove sweetness was imperceptible on the back of the tongue.
实验能够证明舌根完全感受不到甜味
The second culprit behind the tongue map’s spread
导致味觉图广为流传的第二个罪魁祸首
were the images that Hänig’s work inspired.
是一副根据哈尼格的研究创造出来的图像
In 1912, a rough version of the map appeared in a newspaper article
1912年 一张简略版的味觉图出现在了报纸上
that cautiously described some of the mysteries
报道小心翼翼地描述了
behind taste and smell research.
味觉和嗅觉研究背后的一些奥秘
Featuring clear labels across the tongue, the article’s illustration
这篇报道的插图在舌头上标注了明确标签
simplified Hänig’s more-complicated original diagrams.
简化了哈尼格更加复杂的原始图解
Variations of this approachable image became repeatedly cited,
这幅通俗易懂的图像的变体被反复引用
often without credit or nuanced consideration for Hänig’s work.
但往往没有注明来源 也没有仔细看哈尼格的研究
Eventually this image spread to textbooks and classrooms
最终 这幅图像传到了教科书和教室里
as a purported truth of how we experience taste.
被我们当成人感知味道的真理
But perhaps the factor that most contributed to this misconception
但也许导致这个错误观念最大的因素
was its narrative simplicity.
是它叙事简洁
In many ways,
在很多方面
the map complements our desire for clear stories about the world around us—
味觉图满足了我们以通俗易懂的方式认识这个世界的需求——
a quality not always present in the sometimes-messy fields of science.
这种易懂性在复杂的科学领域中却不常见
For example, even the number of tastes we have
例如 甚至我们拥有的味觉种类
is more complicated than Hänig’s work suggests.
都要比哈尼格研究所呈现的更复杂
Umami— also known as savory— is now considered the fifth basic taste,
旨味——又称鲜味——如今被认为是第五种基本味道
and many still debate the existence of tastes
还有很多人仍在争辩其他味道的存在性:
like fatty, alkaline, metallic, and water-like.
比如脂肪味 碱味 金属味 水味等
Once we hear a good story,
一旦我们听到一个好故事
it can be difficult to change how we see that information,
想要改变看待它的方式是很难的——
even in the face of new evidence.
哪怕有新的证据摆在面前
So, next time you see a convenient chart or read a surprising anecdote,
所以 当你看到一个易懂的图表或者一个趣事时
try to maintain a healthy skepticism—
请尝试持着合理的怀疑态度——
because misconceptions can leave a bitter taste
因为错误观念会在你舌头上的各处
on every part of your tongue.
留下一种苦涩的味道
Did you know that 70% of statistics are made up? including this one.
你知道70%的数据 包括本视频 都是编造的吗?
How can we avoid being tricked by statistics
这些数据如此具有说服力 使复杂难懂变得易于理解
when they’re so persuasive and make complex data digestible?
那我们该如何避免被骗呢?
Check out this video about Simpson’s paradox and learn how to make sense of statistics.
观看视频 “辛普森悖论” 教你如何理解数据

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

人们经常被错误信息欺骗的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hz6GULbowAk

相关推荐