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为什么在游泳池里小便会有危险? – 译学馆
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为什么在游泳池里小便会有危险?

Why Peeing in the Pool Could Be Dangerous | Disinfection By-Products

入场曲
[♩INTRO]
如果你曾是一名游泳运动员 或常去游泳
If you’ve ever been a competitive swimmer – or, just spent a lot of time at the pool
你可能有往泳池里撒过一两次尿
– you might have peed in the water once or twice.
也许好多次
Or maybe a lot.
据采访 奥林匹克运动会的游泳运动员们经常都在泳池里小便
According to interviews, Olympic swimmers pee in the pool all the time.
即使这听上去很恶心 很多人说尿液是无菌的
Even though it sounds disgusting, a lot of people say urine is sterile, plus chlorine
泳池添加的氯还是一种消毒剂
is a disinfectant.
所以朋友之间的一点尿液没什么大不了的 不是吗?
So what’s a little pee between friends… right?
事实上你可能还是得去洗手间去方便
Well, you might actually wanna take your business to the bathroom.
第一 尿液其实并非那么无菌
For one, it turns out that pee isn’t all that sterile.
而且也会有另一个麻烦:
But there’s another problem, too:
在泳池里 尿液和氯混合产生的化学物质可以造成
Mixing urine with the chlorine in your pool can make chemicals that might cause respiratory
一些呼吸系统和神经系统的问题
and nervous system problems.
尿液大部分是水 但也包含了许多你身体不需要的废物
Urine is mostly water, but it contains a lot of junk your body doesn’t want anymore,
包括尿酸和尿素 两者都是含氮分子
including uric acid and urea, both nitrogen-containing molecules.
尿酸产生于体内一种叫嘌呤的分子的分解
Uric acid is produced when your body breaks down molecules called purines, like the ones
它是你的DNA的主要组成成分之一
in some of your DNA bases.
而尿素产生于蛋白质的分解
And urea is made from the breakdown of proteins.
当这些废物分子与泳池里的用于杀菌的氯混合
When these waste molecules mix with chlorine in the pool that’s meant to destroy bacteria
它们之间的反应将形成消毒副产物 或简称为DBPs
and viruses, they react to form disinfection by-products, or DBPs for short.
具体来说 尿素用它的氢原子交换氯原子
Specifically, urea reacts to create a type of chemical called chloramines, swapping out
产生了一种叫氯胺的化学物质
its hydrogen atoms for chlorine atoms.
三氯胺的活性特别强 它可以腐蚀泳池内和周围的金属
Trichloramine, especially, is pretty reactive, and can corrode the metal in and around pools.
而且你也许能通过它的气味就知道 经典的化学气味“泳池味”
And you might know it by its smell – that classic chemical “pool smell” is caused
就是由氯胺气产生的 而不是氯气
by chloramine gases, not chlorine.
有许多人 例如救生员们被报道出 长时间呆在泳池后
A lot of people, like lifeguards, have reported they get red eyes, a runny nose, or a scratchy
出现了眼睛发红 流涕 或声音嘶哑
voice after being around the pool too much, which could potentially have something to
这可能是被大量三氯胺刺激所致
do with irritation from lots of trichloramine.
有研究者认为氯胺也可导致游泳者出现呼吸系统的问题
Some researchers think chloramines could cause respiratory problems in swimmers, too, since
或许因为他们比不太常去游泳的人呼吸更加急促
they probably breathe in a bunch more than your average pool-goer.
但我们需要做更多的研究来探索它对健康的影响
But we’ll need to do more research to really understand the health effects.
我们已经知道尿素和三氯胺之间的联系
We’ve known about the connection between urea and trichloramine for a while now, but
而最近我们发现了尿酸与一种被称为氯化氰的物质之间的关系
we’ve pretty recently found a link between uric acid and a molecule called cyanogen chloride.
氯化氰气体并不具有我们熟悉的气味 不好的消息是
Cyanogen chloride gas doesn’t have a familiar smell, but it’s real bad news and can cause
它可以导致呼吸 心血管 以及中枢神经系统的问题
respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous system problems.
它属于氰化物的一种 氰化物都含有一个
It’s part of a group of chemicals called cyanides, which all have a carbon atom bonded
结合了一个氮原子的碳原子
to a nitrogen atom.
它们有毒 并且是剧毒
They’re toxins, and nasty ones at that.
这种化学物质会干扰你的细胞利用氧气 导致你的细胞代偿产生更多地能量
These chemicals mess with how your cells use oxygen, so your cells struggle to produce
如果它的浓度足够高 人体所有正常的秩序将被打乱
energy, and if the concentrations are high enough, all kinds of things can go wrong.
在发表于2014年环境科学与技术杂志的一篇课题中
In one study, published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology in 2014, researchers
研究员合成了人工尿液 与不同浓度的氯混合
created synthetic urine and combined it with various concentrations of chlorine.
一小时内 尿酸便产生了一些氰化物
And within an hour, the uric acid created some cyanogen chloride.
其量取决于他们加入的氯的浓度 大约为2至8毫克
The amount varied based on the chlorine concentration they used, but it was around 2 to 8 milligrams
每公升左右
per liter.
现在关于液体氯化氰的危险浓度 还没有一些正式数据
Now, there aren’t many official guidelines about what concentration of liquid cyanogen
有些数据来源建议 应避免暴露在超过0.6毫克每立方米的
chloride is dangerous, but some sources recommend avoiding exposure to more than 0.6 milligrams
氯化氰气体中
per cubic meter of the gas form.
所以高达2至8毫克每公升的氯化氰听起来像是个挺大的数字
So getting 2 to 8 milligrams per liter of cyanogen chloride sounds like a huge deal.
但这不并是你的泳池所能达到的量
But it’s pretty unlikely you’ll ever find that much in your swimming pool, because this
因为实验中使用了比实验室外能达到的量更高浓度的氯
experiment used higher concentrations of chlorine than you’d find outside of a lab.
所以当你过段时间要去一个泳池派对时 你不必惊慌
So, you probably don’t need to panic if you go to a pool party every once in a while.
当上百的游泳者都在大型泳池小便时
DBP levels might be an issue at large swim meets, where hundreds of swimmers are probably
DPBs含量可能会成为一个问题
peeing in the water.
特别是如果许多人都在同一块地方撒尿 比如 都在跳水台下
Especially if a lot of people are peeing in the same spot – say, at the foot of the
那块区域将有更高浓度的DPBs
diving board – that area will have higher concentrations of DBPs like trichloramine
比如三氯胺或氯化氰
or cyanogen chloride.
研究者们正试图弄明白 是否长期暴露于DBPs
And researchers are trying to figure out if long-term exposure to DBPs are related to
与异乎寻常并在许多调查中被证实的
the unusually high amounts of asthma reported among competitive swimmers, which has been
大量的游泳运动员的患上哮喘相关
documented in multiple surveys.
现在看来 DBPs似乎并不是泳池中关乎生死的问题
For now, it looks like DBPs probably aren’t a life-or-death issue in the pool, although
虽然它们也并不是无害的
they’re not harmless either.
所以爬出泳池 擦干身上的水 然后去洗手间小便
So getting out of the pool, drying off, and going inside to use the bathroom is kind of
可能很痛苦 但你的肺和你的朋友们 会感激你的
a pain, but your lungs – and probably your friends – will thank you.
感谢收看这一期的科学秀
And thank you for watching this episode of SciShow!
如果你希望让你的科学给朋友们留下深刻的印象 告诉他们你绝对不会尿在泳池里
If you want to impress your friends with science at the pool that you’re definitely not gonna
你可以带上属于你的科学秀沙滩毛巾 dftba.com/scishow上可购买
pee in, you can get your very own SciShow beach towel, available at dftba.com/scishow.

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为什么在游泳池里小便会有危险?告诉你泳池中的氯与尿液间都发生了什么

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