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为什么珍珠这么贵? – 译学馆
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为什么珍珠这么贵?

Why Pearls Are So Expensive | So Expensive

几个世纪以来 珍珠都被认为是
Pearls have been a symbol of elegance
优雅和阶级的标志
and class for centuries.
印度的国王和欧洲的皇后们
The Maharajas of India and European queens
都纷纷戴上珍珠 以示自己的显赫
adorned themselves with pearls,a symbol of their prestige.
在2018年的纽约大都会艺术博物馆慈善舞会
At 2018’s CatholicChurch-inspired Met Gala,
名流们纷纷身缀珍珠走红毯
celebrities walked the red carpet dripping in pearls.
乌玛·瑟曼的礼服裙上缝了超过3千颗的白色珍珠
Uma Thurman’s dress had over3,000 white pearls sewn to it,
雷哈娜的教皇风格的服装
while Rihanna’s pope-inspired outfit
几乎镶满了珍珠
was encrusted in pearls.
2019年的格莱美颁奖典礼上 卡迪·B
At the 2019 Grammys, Cardi B
直接把自己打扮成了一个珍珠蚌
was basically dressed like an oyster.
历史上卖得最贵的珍珠
The most expensive pearl ever sold
是法国玛丽·安托瓦内特皇后的珍珠坠饰
was Marie Antoinette’s pendant.
在2018年的一场拍卖会上以3200万美元的价格成交
It sold for $32 million in a 2018 auction.
但 珍珠凭什么如此昂贵呢?
But what is it that makespearls so expensive?
玛丽皇后的珍珠其实是一个钻石镶嵌吊坠的一部分
Marie Antoinette’s pearl was part of a diamond-studded pendant,
由于其具有重大的历史意义
and it has important historical significance,
使得它的价值增加
which increased its value.
不过 还有其他因素可以决定珍珠的价值
But there are several other factors that determine the value of a pearl.
汤姆·莫斯: 评估一颗珍珠的价值
Tom Moses: Assessing the value of a pearl
可能是最复杂的宝石鉴定过程
is probably the mostcomplex gem to assess. Narrator:
这是汤姆·莫斯
That’s Tom Moses.
他是美国珠宝协会的宝石专家
He’s a gemologist at theGemological Institute of America
他在这里负责钻石分级
where he oversees diamond grading,
彩石鉴定以及珍珠鉴定
colored stone identification,and pearl identification.
他说玛丽皇后的
He says that part
珍珠吊坠值得如此高价的其中一个原因是
of the reason the Marie Antoinette pearl is worth so much
它是一颗天然珍珠
is because it’s a natural pearl,
这是决定珍珠价值的一个因素
which brings us to one quality that determines a pearl’s value.
即天然与养殖
Natural versus cultured.
天然珍珠非常难觅
Natural pearls are hard to find.
因为稀有 所以就更值钱
They’re rare, and thismakes them worth more money.
但是让我们回头想一想
But let’s rewind for a second.
什么是天然珍珠
What is a natural pearl,
它是如何形成的?
and how are they formed?
天然珍珠的形成源于某种异物
Natural pearls form whensome kind of irritant,
通常是一些细小微生物
usually a small organism,
进入到某些软体动物的壳内
makes its way into the shell of a mollusk
例如贝壳或者蚌类
like an oyster or a mussel.
为了保护自己 对抗它的侵略者
To protect itself from the invader,
软体动物会开始分泌珍珠质或珍珠母
the mollusk starts to coat the debris with nacre,
将异物包裹住
or mother-of-pearl, the same material
两者都是蚌壳内层的同类物质
that lines the inner layer of its shell.
该动作不断重复 包裹异物并慢慢长成闪亮的珍珠
It continues doing this, and the irritant grows into a shiny pearl.
养殖珍珠的生产也是同样的过程
Cultured pearls are formedby the same process,
与异物偶然入侵到蚌壳不同的是
but instead of the irritantentering the shell accidentally,
异物是被人为放入蚌壳的
it’s put there intentionally by a human.
珍珠养殖者植入小片软体动物组织
Pearl farmers insert apiece of mollusk tissue,
我们称之为供体组织
which is called donor tissue,
他们把供体组织植入蚌壳内
into the shell of the oyster where they want the pearl to grow.
这就触发了蚌的防御机制
This triggers theoyster’s defense response,
蚌开始分泌珠质包裹供体组织
and it starts coating thatpiece of tissue with nacre.
市场上绝大多数的珍珠
The vast majority of pearls on the market
都是人工养殖的珍珠
are cultured pearls.
美国宝石协会利用X射线
The Gemological Institute of America uses X-rays to tell
鉴别一颗珍珠是天然的还是养殖的
if a pearl is natural or cultured.
如果你仔细看这两张图像
If you look closely at these two images,
你就会发现它们的不同之处
you can see the difference. Moses:
莫斯:想象一下洋葱的层瓣
Think about the layers of an onion.
天然珍珠因为是一层一层的覆盖形成的
So a natural pearl would have all of those concentric layers
所以有天然的同心轴
of growth from the very inside out.
而养殖的珍珠 从另一个方面来说
A cultured pearl, on the other hand,
则像一个有很大芯的橙子
is like an orange, with a large center
外面只包裹着一层薄层珠质
and a thinner layer ofpearl growth around that.
这个大的中心部分正是人工
The large center is the manmade irritant
植入蚌壳内以刺激珍珠层形成的异物
placed in the shell toencourage nacre formation.
最早的珍珠养殖可以追溯到大约公元500年前的中国
Cultured pearls date all the way back to around 500 AD in China.
然而在1893年 日本人御木幸幸吉
However, in 1893, the Japanese-born
改进了这个流程
Kōkichi Mikimoto streamlined the process
并最终培育出几乎是圆形的珍珠
and eventually createdperfectly round pearls. Today,
时至今日御木本被公认为是
Mikimoto is widely considered
珍珠养殖的鼻祖
the grandfather of cultured pearls.
他使用的是Akoya 珍珠
He used Akoya pearls,which are the traditional
一种你可能耳熟的传统白珍珠
white round pearls you’reprobably familiar with.
到了1920年 养殖珍珠业变得更具商业价值
By the 1920s, cultured pearls became more commercially available,
养殖珍珠能让养殖者
which made them more affordable and accessible
更加富裕并且接触到皇室人员
to people who weren’t royalty.
但是就算能够养殖珍珠
But just because you cangrow a cultured pearl
也不代表流程就很简单
doesn’t mean it’s an easy process.
珠农将软体动物的外壳
Pearl farmers pry open the mollusk shell
撬开到足够植入外来组织的宽度
just enough to implant thepiece of foreign tissue,
然后将牡蛎重新放回水里
then they put theoysters back in the water
然后等待六个月到两年珍珠形成
and wait anywhere from six months to two years for pearls to form,
但每颗珍珠的大小不可能都一样
and not every pearl comes out the same,
这也带来了另一个可以
which brings us to another quality that can make one pearl
评判珍珠质量的标准
worth more than another.
尺寸
Size.
就和其他珠宝一样 珍珠越大越有价值
The larger the pearl, the more valuable, just like any other gem.
珍珠的尺寸主要依赖于
The size of the pearl largely depends
软体动物的尺寸
on the size of the mollusk.
有些牡蛎能够长得很大
Certain oysters grow bigger than others
因此也能做出大的珍珠
and can, therefore, make bigger pearls.
例如 Akoya珍珠的直径只能
For example, Akoya pearls can only grow
长到9到10毫米左右
to about 9 or 10 millimeters in diameter,
但是南洋珍珠和大溪地黑珍珠的直径
but South Sea pearls andblack Tahitian pearls
却能达到15到16毫米左右
can reach a diameter ofaround 15 or 16 millimeters.
尺寸大使得南洋珍珠和
The larger size makes South Sea pearls
大溪地黑珍珠成为最贵的珍珠类型
and black pearls the mostvaluable type of pearl.
在御木本官网上 这串养殖的南洋珍珠
On Mikimoto’s website, this strand of South Sea cultured pearls
售价高达3万2千美元
is selling for $32,000.
另一个在珍珠类型中有显著差异的
The other notable differencebetween pearl types
就是颜色
is the color.
有时候珍珠的颜色和尺寸是紧密联系的
Sometimes this goes hand in hand with size
因为珍珠的颜色
because the pearl’s color is determined
更多是取决于珍珠来自哪个软体动物
mostly by the mollusk it comes from.
大溪地黑珍珠之所以是黑色
Tahitian black pearls areblack because the inside
是因为产生该珍珠的黑碟珍珠蛤是黑色的
of the Pinctada margaritiferaoyster is black,
不过颜色也会根据养殖的步骤而发生轻微的改变
but colors can vary slightly based on the culturing process as well.
颜色差异的主要原因是
The main reason for the color difference
软体动物的种类
is the species of the mollusk.
另一个很有意思的影响因素就是
Another very interesting influence
当要养殖一个珍珠时
is when a pearl is cultured,
就会从另一个活软体动物中取出供体组织
there is a donor tissue usedfrom another living mollusk,
而珍珠的颜色就取决于供体组织的颜色
and depending on the color of that tissue,
供体组织会影响养殖珍珠的最终颜色
it will influence the color of the final cultured pearl.
以Akoya珍珠举例
Take for example Akoya pearls.
这是一串白珍珠 但是各个白色的饱和度仍有不同
These are all white pearls, but the shade of white can still vary.
一些珠链可能白里透着轻微粉色
Some strands might be slightly more pink,
而一些则更多白里透着浅绿色
while others have more of a greenish tint.
Tom说白里透粉的珍珠比透绿的更受欢迎
Tom says that pinker pearls are typically preferred over green hues.
除了尺寸和颜色以外
Along with size and color,the shape and surface
珍珠的形状和外观也会影响到价值
of a pearl can have animpact on its value.
圆润度和光滑度越标准越好
Typically the rounderand smoother, the better.
最后 可能也是差异性最大的判定准则
And finally, perhaps the hardest variable
即光泽度
to measure: luster.
光泽度本质上就是珍珠反射光线产生的
Luster is essentially theway a pearl reflects light.
越闪亮的珍珠越好
The shinier the pearl, the better.
但是很难评判一个珍珠的光泽度
But it’s hard to tell how shiny a pearl is
除非你有其他颗珍珠可以来做对比
unless you have otherpearls to compare it to.
这也是为什么Tom以及其他宝石学会的人
That’s why Tom and the restof the Gemological Institute
都会收集样品珍珠来做对照的原因
have a collection of samplestrands for comparison.
他们可以将一串珠链与其他珠链进行对比
That way they can look athow one strand of pearls
然后观察被检测珠链的光泽度在哪个范围
compares to another and see where it falls on the luster scale.
珍珠的光泽度与
The quality of a pearl’s luster is influenced
中心层的珠母质有关
by the layers of nacre that coat the center.
打个比方就像房顶的瓷砖一样
One way to think of it is like the tiles of a roof.
想象一下一个屋顶铺满了瓷砖
Picture a roof with all the tiles lined
瓷砖与瓷砖紧密贴合
up so that everything fits together well.
如果你把这个解释用在珍珠上
If you translate that to a pearl,
就能做出一个精致高光泽的珍珠
it would result in anice, high-luster pearl.
一个粗制低光泽的珍珠更像是一个
A dull, low-luster pearlwould be more like a roof
七零八落地贴着残破易碎瓷砖的屋顶
with broken and fragmentedtiles that don’t line up.
当你顾及到所有的因素时
When you take into consideration all of these factors,
寻找或是生产完美的珍珠就是一门艺术
finding or creating the perfect pearl is an art,
事实上因为珍珠生长在动物体内
and the fact means they’regrown inside an animal,
所以要完全控制珍珠如何形成
so it’s impossible tohave complete control
以及什么时候形成是不可能的
over how and when they form,
尤其是野外的珍珠更不可能
especially in the wild.
所以如果你在吃牡蛎的时候
So if you ever bite down on something hard
咬到什么坚硬的东西
while you’re eating an oyster, take a look
在你吞之前看一眼
at it before you chuck it.
那可能不只是一颗沙粒
It might be more than a piece of sand.

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视频概述

介绍了几个可以判断珍珠的价值的标准

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0ihGlsLL1Y

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