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为什么鹦鹉能学人说话?

Why parrots can talk like humans

如果猕猴突然能发出声音 将是这样的……
This is what a macaque monkey would sound like if it suddenly proposed.
你会娶我吗?
Will you marry me?
哈哈 我也不喜欢这个声音 让我们再听一次
Yeah, I hate it too. Let’s play it again:
当然了 这不是一只真正的猴子发出的声音
Now of course, that’s not a real monkey
而是在一项有关猴子声带的研究中
It’s a computer simulation that was part of a study
用计算机模拟出来的
on monkey vocal tracts.
现在已经被证明
And what it shows is that monkeys have a
猴子有着和人类高度相似的声带结构
strikingly similar vocal structure to humans.
但即使如此相似 他们依然无法像人类一样说话
But despite all these similarities, they can’tspeak
而这就很奇怪
So here’s a question.
和猴子相比 鸟类和我们差距很大
Compared to monkeys, birds are nothing like us.
但某些鸟类已经可以和我们谈话
Yet this bird’s talking to me right now.
这是怎么做到的?
How?
鸟类没有嘴唇 它们也没有牙齿
Birds don’t have lips. They don’t haveteeth,
它们的鼻子结构也和我们完全不同
their “ nose ” is totally different from ours,
但它们的确有些我们没有的结构
but they do have something we don’t.
鸟类和我们的发声系统有着很大的差别
They actually have a different kind of voice box than we do.
它被称作“鸣管”
It’s called a syrinx.
这位是汤普森女士
This is Maya Thompson .
其在康奈尔大学从事鸟类学研究
She studies birds at Cornell University.
鸟类其实有着两套独立的发声系统
They actually have two independent voice boxes.
鸟类和人类的下呼吸道
In birds and in humans, the lower respiratory system
看起来就像一个倒置的弹弓
is shaped sort of like an upside down slingshot.
前端是气管
The top part is the trachea, or windpipe,
而后端则是肺
the bottom part is the lungs,
这两部分控制空气的进出
and these two pieces move air in and out.
人类的发声部位被称为喉头
In humans, the voice box is called the larynx,
它在气管的上方
and it’s located above the trachea.
我们读“folds”时 空气穿过其中
It contains vocal “ folds ” that vibrate
其会通过震动来发出声音
when air flows through to produce sound.
然后人类一般用嘴型来改变发音
And humans primarily shape that sound with their mouths.
但对于鸟类 它们的发声部位被称为“鸣管”
But in birds, the voice box is called the”syrinx”.
其位于气管的下方
And it is located at the bottom of the trachea.
鸟类不只像我们一样将气体送入声带
Instead of just sending air through vocal folds like we do,
它们还控制着鸣管壁的肌肉
birds actually control the muscles on the walls of the syrinx
来发出和改变声音
to shape and produce sound.
让我们来听听这只红雀的歌声
Take a look at this cardinal as it sings.
你可以明显感受到它们的声音来自胸腔
You can actually see that the noise comes directly from the chest.
它通过伸缩脖子
The bird extends and shortens its neck
开合鸟喙来改变声音
and opens or closes its beak to refine the noise,
但最主要的改变
but most of the control
其实来源于它的鸣管
is actually happening in the syrinx.
鸣管
Syrinx
这对于如此小的动物来说是很有力的声音
It’s a powerful sound for such a small animal,
但这还不是最令人震惊的部分
but that’s not even the most impressive part:
红雀会发出很大的声音
Cardinals tend to make these”whoop”
而且它们的声音转换的非常非常快
notes and they go by very very quickly.
他们能够在少于0.1s的时间内
They’re able to produce more pitches than a piano
发出比钢琴更多的音调
in less than a tenth of a second.
它们几乎可以无缝地
They’re actually switching from one side
将发声部位从鸣管一侧转向另一侧
of the syrinx to another seamlessly
从而发出令人难以相信的音域
to make this very very incredible span of pitches.
鸣管的存在也会使一些鸟类能够重复出
The syrinx also lets some birds replicate sounds
精确到令人难以置信的音调
with astonishing accuracy.
比如 BBC野生动物频道捕捉到了
For example, BBC Wildlife caught
一只琴鸟在野外模仿照相机声音的精彩镜头
a lyrebird perfectly imitating a camera in the wild.
当然 他们中的一些也会选择模仿我们
And of course, some of them imitate us.
鹦鹉就是天生的交流家
Parrots are born communicators.
从一开始 他们的大脑就适应了交谈
From the start, their brains are wired for speech.
所以从一出生开始它们就开始了学习
So when they’re first hatched they’re learning right away
它们会向环境的任何东西学习
and they’re learning fromeverything around them.
但学人说话对它们来说可不是件容易的事
But speaking human is no easy feat.
我们的语言中有元音字母
We’ve got our vowels
A – E – I – O – U
A – E – I – O – U.
我们还会说爆破音 例如“Pocket”
Our plosives “Pocket”.
以及很多的辅音字母
And a variety of consonants
甚至有时我们都要很费力地说清楚它们
that we even sometimes struggle to enunciate clearly
所以鹦鹉为了能和我们说话一样清晰
So to pull off such clarity in human speech,
它们熟练掌握了控制声带的能力
parrots really show off their ability to manipulate their vocal tract.
说到爆破音 我们需要用我们嘴唇
Plosives, for example, require using our lips.
为了解决没有嘴唇的问题
To make up for the lack of lips,
鹦鹉用食管进行发声
parrots use something called esophageal speech
那就像我们在气管内部的打嗝
it’s almost like burping that comes from within the trachea.
依靠气体的压力产生了爆破音
The force of air replicates the plosive.
在发元音时 我们会用到嘴唇舌头和下巴
As for vowels, where we use our lips, tongue and jaw,
研究人员发现鹦鹉会通过前后移动舌头
researchers have found that parrots move their tongues forward and backward
并且调整鸟喙的开合来调整声音
and adjust their beak opening to alter the sound.
它们好像是唯一一种
It seems like they are the only birds that
能像人类一样通过移动舌头
are actually using their tongue like humans do
来改变发声的鸟类
to shape the sound that’s comingout.
鹦鹉对于交流有着天然的需求
Parrots have a natural desire to communicate.
在自然界它们会和其族群进行频繁的沟通
In the wild they form strong bonds with their flocks,
但在圈养生活中
but in captivity,
鹦鹉对人类产生了很强的依靠
the parrot forms a social bond with you
它们想和主人进行交流
and they want to communicate with you
而它们的声带结构又可以去模仿人类
and they have the vocal anatomy to start mimicking you.
当鹦鹉和我们住在一起时 我们和他们是一个群体
When parrots live with us, we’re their flock
而它们就会去唱我们的歌
and they’re determined to sing our song.
所以在视频中你看到了一些
So in this video I showed you some
使得鸟类可以发出声音的生理学原因
of the physiology that lets birds produce sounds.
我想有一种便捷简单的方法
But I wanted a quick and easy way
向你展示神经层面允许它们说话
to show you some of the interesting background research
的一些有趣的研究背景和原理
on the neurology that allows some of them to speak.
所以我用Wix创建了一个网站
So I created a website with Wix,
在那里我还写了一些额外的部分
where I’ve compiled a bunch of extras,
包括相关的研究和最新进展
including research and related content
希望能带你更好地理解这些动物的大脑
that gets you inside the brains of these animals.
这是一个超级简单的方法来创建一个网站
It’s a super easy way to make a website,
所以点击下面的链接创立你自己的网站吧
so click on the link below to make your own.
Wix不会直接影响社交言论
Wix doesn’t directly impact editorial
所以去看看吧
so go check them out.
但有Wix的支持 做这种视频就简单了
but their support does make videos like this one possible,

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视频概述

鹦鹉作为唯一一种能模仿人类说话的动物,其到底拥有着怎样神奇的发声结构呢?本视频从解剖学的角度为大家回答了这个问题,相信大家通过观看,一定可以解决这个疑惑。

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBGw7uXc0eo

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