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生蚝为什么那么贵?

Why Oysters Are So Expensive | So Expensive

Oysters are a sure sign of high-end decadence.
生蚝无疑是种高奢食品
But look back 200 years
但是在200年前
and they were handed out as free bar snacks.
它们不过是酒吧里免费供给的小吃
So what made them the luxury food that they are today?
那么是什么让生蚝变成了今天的奢侈食材呢?
Oysters have been around for a while.
生蚝的出现已经有一段时间了
Estimates put the shellfish at around 300 million years old at least.
据估计 生蚝已有至少约3亿年的历史
And humans have been enjoying them for centuries.
人类吃生蚝也有数百年了
Oyster cultivation was invented by Sergius Orata, a Roman engineer
罗马工程师塞尔吉乌斯·奥尔塔发明了生蚝养殖
also often credited with the invention of underfloor heating,
他也常被认为是地下供暖的发明者
And since his invention,
自从地暖发明以后
oyster farming has become big business.
生蚝养殖就成为了大规模产业
While you may be seeing oysters on the menu more these days,
虽然现在生蚝越来越多地出现在菜单上
their popularity now is nothing
但就现在的受欢迎度
compared to just 200 years ago.
远远比不上 200 年前
Oyster sales boomed from the early 19th century onwards,
19世纪早期 生蚝业开始繁荣
and the shellfish were sold as street food
当时生蚝作为一种街边小吃
across London, Paris, and New York
在伦敦 巴黎 纽约到处可见
as they remained a cheap and accessible snack to many.
因为对许多人来说 生蚝仍然是便宜易得的小吃
In 1860, the small British seaside town of Whitstable alone
1860年 仅英国的一个沿海小镇 惠特斯特布尔
was sending 50 million tons of oysters to London each year.
每年就要向伦敦输送5千万吨生蚝
And by 1900, New York was eating
到了1900年 纽约每天要吃掉
1 million oysters every day.
一百万只生蚝
But as their popularity grew, so did the problems.
但是随着生蚝日受欢迎 问题也随之出现
Industrialization and dredging of the waters in England led to overfishing,
工业化及英格兰水域的疏浚 导致了过度捕捞
and as more people moved to the coast,
并且随着更多的人迁居到海边
more and more sewage ended up dumped in oyster-growing waters.
越来越多的的污水 被排放到生蚝生长的水域中
Soon, there were outbreaks of typhoid and other diseases,
很快 伤寒和其它疾病就在这里爆发了
and many oyster beds had to be closed.
许多生蚝养殖场不得不关闭
Hard winters and new diseases killed off
严冬和新发的疾病杀死了
many of the remaining native oysters
许多剩余的土生生蚝
and gave the shellfish a bad reputation that lasted for years to come.
同时也给生蚝带来了持续了好几年的坏名声
There’s something else that kept the price of oysters down
另一个导致世纪之交
around the turn of the century:
生蚝价格下跌的原因是:
child labor.
童工
In the early 20th century, American photographer Lewis Hine
在20世纪早期 美国摄影师路易斯·海因
captured photographs of many of the children
拍到了许多孩子
working in the oyster industry,
在生蚝工厂工作的照片
even photographing 4-year-old Mary,
甚至拍到了1个4岁的女孩玛丽
who had apparently shucked two pots of oysters each day.
看起来她每天要剥掉两罐生蚝的壳
Things had to change, though.
必须得改变当前的局面
We soon realized the importance of clean water
很快我们就认识到干净水源
in the oyster-growing process
在生蚝生长过程中的重要性
and outlawed child labor
并宣布童工违法
Making oysters environmentally safe
使养殖生蚝的过程环保
and ethical to grow came at a cost,
又不违反道德 是需要代价的
as the shellfish take a lot of work to produce.
因为生产生蚝要下大工夫
And now when oysters are raised,
现在要养生蚝的话
the environment they’re grown in
它们的生长环境
is one of the main considerations.
是需要重点考虑的因素之一
Andre Hughes: Here, there’s no industry,
安德烈·休斯:这里没有工业
there’s very little even farming here.
连农业都很少
What you’ve got out in the loch is just everything
你在湖里得到的
that is natural in the loch.
都是湖里自然野生的
So they ‘re feeding on the best possible feed that you could want
所以它们都是用最好的食物来养殖的
and there couldn’t be an any more natural product.
再没有比这更天然的产品了
Each oyster takes two to three years to mature,
一只生蚝需要2-3年长成
and they start out microscopically small.
开始的时候在显微镜下看到它们很小
The tiny shellfish are grown in hatcheries.
这些小生蚝在孵化所生长
When they’re large enough, they’re transplanted
当它们长得足够大时 就将它们移植
to their final growing place.
到它们的最终生长地
Hughes: Well, we get the oysters in from our hatchery
休斯:我们从孵化所拿到生蚝时
when they’re about your thumbnail size.
它们只有拇指盖那么大
We will grow them in these baskets
我们把他们放在这些篮子里生长
for approximately two to three years,
大约两到三年
and then we’ll send them to the depuration center for depurating,
然后 我们把它们送到净化中心净化
and then for pack and for dispatch.
接下来打包派送
At Loch Fyne, every oyster is depurated,
在法恩湾 每一个生蚝都要经过净化
a process that cleans the oysters
净化过程可以将生蚝洗干净
and removes any dangerous bacteria.
并去除所有的有害细菌
Every single oyster must be checked by hand.
每一只生蚝都要经过手工检查
Making sure that each oyster is shipped live is paramount.
确保每只生蚝活物运送是最重要的
Believe it or not,
信不信由你
we sell roughly about 35,000 oysters every week out here,
我们这里每周大约会卖出35000只生蚝
and every single oyster is individually checked.
每一只生蚝都经过人工检查
So, what we would do is when we’re packing the oysters,
我们会在打包生蚝时
we’d pick up two oysters, and we would tap them together.
拿起两只生蚝 互相敲打
Now, you can obviously see that one’s dead,
现在 你可以清楚地看到有一只是死的
but when you’re packing thousands at a time,
但当你一次打包几千只的时候
you wouldn’t necessarily see it,
你不一定能发现死掉的生蚝
and sometimes it’s only open just a little tiny bit,
有时生蚝的贝壳只张开一点点
but when you tap that oyster,
但当你敲这只生蚝时
you can hear it almost straightaway,
你几乎可以立刻听见它的声音
and that is the best way
这是判断一只生蚝
to tell if an oyster’s gonna reach its shelf life,
是否达到保质期 应不应该被丢掉的
whether it should be discarded.
最好的办法
[tapping]
[敲击声]
Oysters may only have a nine-day shelf life,
生蚝只有九天的保质期
but that doesn’t stop them being shipped
但这并不能限制生蚝
all across the globe,
在全球的运输
and their popularity and image as a luxury treat
并且生蚝的受欢迎度和奢华款待的印象
means that their demand is only going to rise.
意味着它们的需求只会不断上升

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视频概述

主要介绍了生蚝作为食物的起源和历史,以及现代培育生蚝的过程。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

拈花吃瓜

审核员

审核员CR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2aZkpam2Ms

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