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为什么我们的智商比祖父母高

Why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents' | James Flynn

We are going to take a quick voyage over the cognitive history of the 20th century,
我们来快速回顾一下20世纪的认知史
because during that century, our minds have altered dramatically.
因为在那个世纪 思想发生了巨大的变化
As you all know, the cars that people drove in 1900 have altered
众所周知 1900年人们驾驶的汽车
because the roads are better and because of technology.
因道路的改善和技术的发展而改变了
And our minds have altered, too.
我们的思想也发生了变化
We’ve gone from people who confronted a concrete world
我们面对的不再是具体的世界
and analyzed that world primarily in terms of how much it would benefit them
而是一个非常复杂的世界
to people who confront a very complex world,
也不再主要分析它会给我们带来多大好处
and it’s a world
在这个复杂的世界上
where we’ve had to develop new mental habits, new habits of mind.
我们必须培养新的心理习惯和思维习惯
And these include things like clothing that concrete world with classification,
其中包括对具体的世界进行分类
introducing abstractions that we try to
引入我们试图使逻辑保持一致的
make logically consistent,
抽象概念
and also taking the hypothetical seriously,
以及认真对待这些假设
that is, wondering about what might have been
也就是去思考“可能是什么”
rather than what is.
而非“是什么”的问题
Now, this dramatic change was drawn to my attention
这种戏剧性的变化之所以引起了我的注意
through massive I.Q.
是因为随着时间的推移
gains over time,
我们的智商大幅提高
and these have been truly massive.
也确实提高了很多
That is,
也就是说
we don’t just get a few more questions
我们不仅是在智商测试中
right on I.Q. tests.
多做对了几道题
We get far more questions right on I.Q. tests
我们在智商测试中答对的问题
than each succeeding generation,
比自这些测试被发明以来的
back to the time that they were invented.
每一代人都多得多
Indeed, if you score the people a century ago
的确 如果你以现代标准
against modern norms,
给一个世纪前的人评分
they would have an average I.Q. of 70.
他们的平均智商只有70分
If you score us against their norms,
如果以他们的标准给我们评分
we would have an average I.Q. of 130.
我们的平均智商可达到130分
Now this has raised all sorts of questions.
现在 这已经引发了各种问题
Were our immediate ancestors
我们的直系祖先
on the verge of mental retardation?
处于智力迟钝的边缘吗?
Because 70 is normally the score for mental retardation.
因为智商70通常是智力迟钝的分数
Or are we on the verge of all being gifted?
还是说 我们接近于天才的智商水平?
Because 130 is the cutting line for giftedness.
因为130分是被评定为天才的临界点
Now I’m going to try and argue for a third alternative
接下来我将尝试为第三种选择进行论证
that’s much more illuminating than either of those,
这比前两个观点更加有启发性
and to put this into perspective,
为了客观地看待这个观点
let’s imagine that a Martian came down to Earth
让我们想象一下一个火星人降临地球
and found a ruined civilization.
发现了一处文明遗址
And this Martian was an archaeologist,
而这个火星人是一位考古学家
and they found scores,
他们发现了分值——
target scores, that people had used for shooting.
人们射击所得的分数
And first they looked at 1865,
他们首先看了1865年的情况
and they found that in a minute,
发现在一分钟内
people had only put one bullet in the bullseye.
人们只能击中靶心一次
And then they found, in 1898,
接着他们发现 在1898年
that they’d put about five bullets in the bullseye in a minute.
人们在一分钟内可以击中靶心五次
And then about 1918
然后在大约1918年时
they put a hundred bullets in the bullseye.
人们在一分钟内能击中靶心一百次
And initially, that archaeologist would be baffled.
起初 这位考古学家感到很困惑
They would say, look, these tests were designed
他们会说 看 设计这些测试
to find out how much people were steady of hand,
是为了弄清楚人的手能有多稳
how keen their eyesight was,
他们的视力能有多敏锐
whether they had control of their weapon.
他们是否能控制好自己的武器
How could these performances have escalated
他们的射击能力怎会有
to this enormous degree?
如此大的进步?
Well we now know, of course, the answer.
当然 现在我们知道答案了
If that Martian looked at battlefields,
如果那个火星人观察一下射击场
they would find that people had only muskets at the
他们就会发现美国内战时期
time of the Civil War
人们只有普通步枪
and that they had repeating rifles at the time of the Spanish-American War,
美西战争时期人们有了连发步枪
and then they had machine guns by the time of World War I.
到第一次世界大战时人们有了机关枪
And, in other words,
换句话说
it was the equipment that was in the hands of the
射击命中率提高是因为
average soldier that was responsible,
普通士兵手里的装备升级了
not greater keenness of eye or steadiness of hand.
而非士兵的目光更敏锐或手更稳定了
Now what we have to imagine is the mental artillery
现在我们还得考虑到这几百年来
that we have picked up over those hundred years,
我们所获得的精神上的武装
and I think again that another thinker will help us here,
我又认为另一位思想家能帮忙解答
and that’s Luria.
他就是卢里亚
Luria looked at people just before
就在进入科学时代之前
they entered the scientific age,
卢里亚观察了一些人
and he found that these people were resistant to classifying the concrete world.
他发现这些人不愿对具体的世界进行分类
They wanted to break it up into little bits that they could use.
他们想把世界分解为可以使用的小部分
He found that they were resistant to deducing the hypothetical,
他发现他们不愿推导假设
to speculating about what might be,
不愿推测可能发生的事情
and he found finally that they didn’t deal well
最后发现他们不善于处理抽象概念
with abstractions or using logic on those abstractions.
或用逻辑分析这些抽象概念
Now let me give you a sample of some of his interviews.
现在给你们看一些他的采访样本
He talked to the head man of a person in rural Russia.
他与俄罗斯的一名村长交谈
They’d only had, as people had in 1900,
和1900年的人一样
about four years of schooling.
他们只接受了四年的学校教育
And he asked that particular person,
他问那个村长
what do crows and fish have in common?
乌鸦和鱼有什么共同点?
And the fellow said, “Absolutely nothing.
那个人说 “没有任何共同点
You know, I can eat a fish. I can’t eat a crow.
你知道的 我能吃鱼 但不能吃乌鸦
A crow can peck at a fish,
乌鸦能啄鱼
a fish can’t do anything to a crow.”
鱼却对乌鸦一点办法也没有”
And Luria said, “But aren’t they both animals?”
卢里亚说 “但它们不都是动物吗?”
And he said, “Of course not.
他说 “当然不
One’s a fish,
一个是鱼
you know, the other is a bird.”
另一个是鸟”
And he was interested, effectively,
而且他感兴趣的其实是
in what he could do with those concrete objects.
他能用这些具体的物体做什么
And then Luria went to another person,
然后卢里亚采访了另一个人
and he said to them,
他对他们说
“There are no camels in Germany,
“德国没有骆驼
Hamburg is a city in Germany,
汉堡是德国的一个城市
are there camels in Hamburg?”
那汉堡有骆驼吗?”
And the fellow said,
那个人说
“Well, if it’s large enough, there ought to be camels there.”
“如果汉堡足够大 那里应该会有骆驼”
And Luria said, “But what do my words imply?”
卢里亚说 “但我的话意味着什么?”
And he said, “Well, maybe it’s a small village,
他说 “也许汉堡是小村庄
and there’s no room for camels.”
容纳不下骆驼”
In other words, he was unwilling to treat this
换句话说 他只愿意把这个问题
as anything but a concrete problem,
看成一个具体的问题
and he was used to camels being in villages,
并且他对骆驼生活在村庄习以为常
and he was quite unable to use the hypothetical,
他完全无法假设
to ask himself what if there were no camels in Germany.
去问自己如果德国没有骆驼会怎样
A third interview was conducted with someone about the North Pole.
第三个采访对象是一个住在北极附近的人
And Luria said, “At the North Pole, there is always snow.
卢里亚说 “北极总是在下雪
Wherever there is always snow, the bears are white.
凡是一直下雪的地方 熊都是白色的
What color are the bears at the North Pole?”
那北极的熊是什么颜色的?”
And the response was, “Such a thing
采访者回答道 “这样的问题
is to be settled by testimony.
要有证据才能解决啊
If a wise person came from the North Pole
如果一个来自北极的智者
and told me the bears were white,
告诉我熊是白色的
I might believe him,
我可能会相信他
but every bear that I have seen is a brown bear.”
但我见过的熊都是棕色的”
Now you see again, this person has rejected
现在你们再次看到了 这个人
going beyond the concrete world
拒绝超越具体的世界
and analyzing it through everyday experience,
拒绝根据日常经验分析事物
and it was important to that person
对那个人来说
what color bears were —
熊是什么颜色很重要——
that is, they had to hunt bears.
因为他们要捕熊
They weren’t willing to engage in this.
但他们不愿意做这件事
One of them said to Luria,
其中一个人对卢里亚说
“How can we solve things that aren’t real problems?
“我们怎么解答那些非真实存在的问题?
None of these problems are real.
这些问题都不是真的
How can we address them?”
我们该如何解答?”
Now, these three categories — classification,
那么 这三类习惯——分类法
using logic on abstractions,
用逻辑分析抽象概念
taking the hypothetical seriously —
认真对待假设——
how much difference do they make in the real world
在实验室之外的真实世界中
beyond the testing room?
能产生多大作用?
And let me give you a few illustrations.
让我给你们举几个例子
First, almost all of us today get a high school diploma.
第一个 如今几乎所有人都有高中文凭
That is, we’ve gone from
也就是说 我们已经
four to eight years of education
从接受四到八年的教育
to 12 years of formal education,
变成了接受十二年的教育
and 52 percent of Americans
而52%的美国人
have actually experienced some type of tertiary education.
实际上都接受了某种类型的高等教育
Now, not only do we have much more education,
现在 我们不仅接受了更多教育
and much of that education is scientific,
而且大部分的教育都很科学
and you can’t do science without classifying the world,
而科学研究离不开对世界的分类
you can’t do science without proposing hypotheses,
也离不开假设的提出
you can’t do science without making it logically consistent.
更离不开逻辑的一致性
And even down in grade school, things have changed.
甚至在小学阶段 情况也发生了变化
In 1910, they looked at the examinations
1910年 研究人员看了
that the state of Ohio gave to 14-year-olds,
俄亥俄州给14岁学生的试卷
and they found that they were all
他们发现考的都是
for socially valued concrete information.
有社会价值的实际问题
They were things like,
比如
what are the capitals of the 44 or 45 states
当时存在的
that existed at that time?
44或45个州的首府是哪些
When they looked at the exams
而当他们去看
that the state of Ohio gave in 1990,
俄亥俄州1990年的试题时
they were all about abstractions.
他们发现题目都是些抽象题
They were things like,
比如
why is the largest city of a state rarely the capital?
为什么一个州最大的城市很少是其首府?
And you were supposed to think, well,
你可能会想
the state legislature was rural-controlled,
州议会由农村人管控
and they hated the big city,
他们讨厌大城市
so rather than putting the capital in a big city,
所以不把首府设在大城市
they put it in a county seat.
而设在了县城
They put it in Albany rather than New York,
他们把首府设在奥尔巴尼而不是纽约
they put it in Harrisburg rather than Philadelphia,
把首府设在哈里斯堡而不是费城
and so forth.
等等
So the tenor of education has changed.
由此可见教育的基调发生了变化
We are educating people to take the hypothetical seriously,
我们正在教育大家认真对待假设
to use abstractions, and to link them logically.
使用抽象概念并用逻辑将它们联系起来
What about employment?
那就业方面呢?
Well, in 1900, three percent of Americans
1900年 3%的美国人
practiced professions that were cognitively demanding.
从事对认知能力有要求的职业
Only three percent were lawyers or doctors or teachers.
只有3%的人是律师 医生或教师
Today, 35 percent of Americans
如今 35%的美国人
practice cognitively demanding professions,
从事对认知能力有要求的职业
not only to the professions proper like lawyer
不仅是像律师
or doctor or scientist or lecturer,
医生 科学家或讲师这样的职业
but many, many sub-professions
还有很多很多与技术人员 程序员
having to do with being a technician,
有关的
a computer programmer.
次级职业
A whole range of professions now make cognitive demands.
现在许多职业都对认知能力有要求
And we can only meet the terms of employment
而我们只有
in the modern world by being cognitively
在认知上更加灵活
far more flexible.
才能满足现代世界的就业条件
And it’s not just that we have many more people
这不仅是因为有更多的人
in cognitively demanding professions,
在从事有认知要求的职业
the professions have been upgraded.
也因为这些职业本身也已升级
Compare the doctor in 1900,
相比1900年
who really had only a few tricks up his sleeve,
实际上只有一些治疗方案的医生
with the modern general practitioner or specialist,
现今的全科医生或专科医生
with years of scientific training.
则经历了多年的科学培训
Compare the banker in 1900,
相比1900年
who really just needed a good accountant
只需要一个好会计
and to know who was trustworthy in the local community
就能知道在当地社区谁值得信任
for paying back their mortgage.
能够偿还抵押贷款的银行家
Well, the merchant bankers who brought the world to their knees
那些让世界屈服的商业银行家
may have been morally remiss,
或许缺乏道德
but they were cognitively very agile.
但他们在认知上非常敏捷
They went far beyond that 1900 banker.
他们远远超过了1900年的银行家
They had to look at computer projections
他们必须利用电脑
for the housing market.
预测住房市场
They had to get complicated CDO-squared
他们必须利用复杂的债务抵押债券
in order to bundle debt together
把债务捆绑在一起
and make debt look as if it were actually a profitable asset.
让债务看起来像是一种盈利的资产
They had to prepare a case to get rating agencies
他们必须准备一个案例让评级机构
to give it a AAA,
将其评为3A
though in many cases, they had virtually bribed the rating agencies.
尽管许多时候 他们实际上贿赂了评级机构
And they also, of course, had to get people
当然 他们还需要让大家
to accept these so-called assets
接受这些所谓的资产
and pay money for them
并为此付钱
even though they were highly vulnerable.
即便他们的谎言不堪一击
Or take a farmer today.
或以现在的农民为例
I take the farm manager of today as very different
我认为现今的农场管理员
from the farmer of 1900.
很不同于1900年的农场管理员
So it hasn’t just been the spread of cognitively
所以不仅有认知能力要求的职业
demanding professions,
范围扩大了
it’s also been the upgrading of tasks
而且律师和医生等职业的
like lawyer and doctor and what have you
工作内容有了升级
that have made demands on our cognitive faculties.
这两者都对我们的认知能力提出了要求
But I’ve talked about education and employment.
但我已经谈到了教育和就业
Some of the habits of mind that we have developed
我们在20世纪形成的
over the 20th century
一些思维习惯
have paid off in unexpected areas.
在意想不到的领域得到了回报
I’m primarily a moral philosopher.
我主要是一个道德哲学家
I merely have a holiday in psychology,
只是在业余时间玩玩心理学
and what interests me in general is moral debate.
而且我一般对道德辩论比较感兴趣
Now over the last century,
上个世纪
in developed nations like America,
在像美国这样的发达国家
moral debate has escalated
道德辩论已经升级
because we take the hypothetical seriously,
因为我们认真地对待假设
and we also take universals seriously
也认真地对待普遍性
and look for logical connections.
并寻找逻辑联系
When I came home in 1955 from university
1955年我从大学返家
at the time of Martin Luther King,
那时正值马丁•路德•金时代
a lot of people came home at that time
很多人都选择在那时回家
and started having arguments with their parents and grandparents.
并开始与他们的父母和祖父母发生争执
My father was born in 1885,
我父亲出生于1885年
and he was mildly racially biased.
他有一些轻微的种族偏见
As an Irishman, he hated the English so much
作为爱尔兰人 他那么恨英国人
he didn’t have much emotion for anyone else.
对其他种族却没有太多情感
(Laughter)
(笑声)
But he did have a sense that black people were inferior.
但他确实觉得黑人低人一等
And when we said to our parents and grandparents,
当我们对父母和祖父母说
“How would you feel if tomorrow morning
“如果一觉醒来变成黑人
you woke up black?”
你的感觉会如何?”
they said that is the dumbest thing you’ve ever said.
他们说这是你说过的最愚蠢的话
Who have you ever known who woke up in the morning —
你们听说过谁早上醒来–
(Laughter) —
(笑声)——
that turned black?
变成了黑人的?
In other words, they were fixed in the concrete
换句话说 他们固守着
mores and attitudes they had inherited.
沿袭下来的旧俗和态度
They would not take the hypothetical seriously,
他们不会认真对待这种假设
and without the hypothetical,
然而没有这种假设
it’s very difficult to get moral argument off the ground.
就很难进行道德辩论
You have to say, imagine you were
你得说 想象你身处伊朗
in Iran, and imagine that your relatives
想象一下你的亲戚们
all suffered from collateral damage
因此遭受着连带的伤害
even though they had done no wrong.
尽管他们没有做错什么
How would you feel about that?
对此你会作何感想?
And if someone of the older generation says,
如果老一辈有人说
well, our government takes care of us,
我们的政府会照顾我们
and it’s up to their government to take care of them,
而他们的政府应该照顾他们
they’re just not willing to take the hypothetical seriously.
那么他们就是不愿意认真对待这个假设
Or take an Islamic father
或以一个伊斯兰教父亲为例
whose daughter has been raped,
他的女儿被强奸了
and he feels he’s honor-bound to kill her.
他觉得自己有责任杀死她
Well, he’s treating his mores
他把他的习俗
as if they were sticks and stones and rocks that he had inherited,
看作是他继承的棍子 石头和岩石
and they’re unmovable in any way by logic.
这些东西在逻辑上是不可动摇的
They’re just inherited mores.
他们就是需要继承这些习俗
Today we would say something like,
今天我们会说
well, imagine you were knocked unconscious and sodomized.
想象一下你被打晕后被强奸了
Would you deserve to be killed?
你就该被杀了吗?
And he would say, well that’s not in the Koran.
他可能会说《古兰经》里没这样的规定
That’s not one of the principles I’ve got.
我没有学过这样的准则
Well you, today, universalize your principles.
而现今的你 会把你的准则普遍化
You state them as abstractions and you use logic on them.
你将它们抽象化和逻辑化
If you have a principle such as,
如果你有这样一个准则 例如
people shouldn’t suffer unless they’re guilty of something,
除非有罪 否则人类不应该受苦
then to exclude black people,
但黑人除外
you’ve got to make exceptions, don’t you?
你的准则是有例外的 不是吗?
You have to say, well, blackness of skin,
你不得不说
you couldn’t suffer just for that.
你不能仅仅因为是黑皮肤而受苦
It must be that blacks are somehow tainted.
黑人在某种程度上肯定是被玷污了
And then we can bring empirical evidence
然后我们可以用经验性的证据来证明它
to bear, can’t we,
不是吗?
and say, well how can you consider all
那么如果圣•奥古斯丁和托马斯•索厄尔
blacks tainted
也都是黑人的话
when St. Augustine was black and Thomas Sowell is black.
你怎会认为所有黑人都被玷污了
And you can get moral argument off the ground, then,
然后你会开始进行道德辩论
because you’re not treating moral principles as concrete entities.
因为你没有把道德准则看成实际的事物
You’re treating them as universals,
你把它们看做普遍现象
to be rendered consistent by logic.
要通过逻辑来实现一致性
Now how did all of this arise out of I.Q. tests?
这一切是如何从智商测试中反映出的呢?
That’s what initially got me going on cognitive history.
这就是我最初研究认知历史的原因
If you look at the I.Q. test,
如果你关注一下智商测试
you find the gains have been greatest in certain areas.
你将会发现某些领域的成绩是巨大的
The similarities subtest of the Wechsler
韦克斯勒的相似性子测验
is about classification,
是关于分类学的
and we have made enormous gains
我们在这个分类学子测验上
on that classification subtest.
取得了巨大的成就
There are other parts of the I.Q. test battery
智商测试的其他部分
that are about using logic on abstractions.
是关于用逻辑分析抽象概念的
Some of you may have taken Raven’s Progressive Matrices,
有些人可能做过瑞文推理测试
and it’s all about analogies.
这些都是有关类比的题目
And in 1900, people could do simple analogies.
1900年 人们可以进行简单的类比
That is, if you said to them,
也就是说 如果你告诉他们
cats are like wildcats.
猫和野猫很像
What are dogs like?
那狗和什么很像呢?
They would say wolves.
他们会说狼
But by 1960,
但到了1960年
people could attack Raven’s on a much more sophisticated level.
人们可以挑战更高等级的瑞文推理测验了
If you said, we’ve got two squares
如果你说 我们有两个正方形
followed by a triangle,
后面是一个三角形
what follows two circles?
那两个圆形后面会是什么呢?
They could say a semicircle.
他们会说是半圆
Just as a triangle is half of a square,
因为三角形是正方形的一半
a semicircle is half of a circle.
而半圆则是圆的一半
By 2010, college graduates, if you said
到了2010年 如果你对大学毕业生说
two circles followed by a semicircle,
两个圆后面是一个半圆
two sixteens followed by what,
那两个16后面是什么
they would say eight, because eight is half of 16.
他们会说8 因为8是16的一半
That is, they had moved so far from the concrete world
也就是说 他们已经超越了具体的世界
that they could even ignore
他们甚至可以忽略
the appearance of the symbols that were involved in the question.
问题中所涉及的符号的形状
Now, I should say one thing that’s very disheartening.
现在 我要说一件非常令人沮丧的事情
We haven’t made progress on all fronts.
我们并没有在所有方面都取得进展
One of the ways in which we would like to deal
我们希望处理现代世界的复杂性的
with the sophistication of the modern world
方式之一
is through politics,
就是通过政治
and sadly you can have humane moral principles,
而可悲的是 你可以有人道主义准则
you can classify, you can use logic on abstractions,
你可以进行分类 在抽象事物上使用逻辑
and if you’re ignorant of history and of other countries,
如果你不了解历史和其他的国家
you can’t do politics.
你就无法与政治打交道
We’ve noticed, in a trend among young Americans,
我们注意到美国年轻人的一个趋势
that they read less history and less literature
他们很少阅读历史和文学
and less material about foreign lands,
也很少阅读外国的材料
and they’re essentially ahistorical.
他们基本都不了解历史
They live in the bubble of the present.
他们活在当下的泡沫中
They don’t know the Korean War from the war in Vietnam.
他们分不清朝鲜战争和越南战争
They don’t know who was an ally of America in World War II.
不知道二战中谁是美国的盟友
Think how different America would be
想想看 如果美国人都知道这是西方国家
if every American knew that this is the fifth time
第五次进攻阿富汗以解决国内问题
Western armies have gone to Afghanistan to put its house in order,
美国会变成怎样
and if they had some idea of exactly what had happened
如果他们对前四次战争到底发生了什么
on those four previous occasions.
有一定的了解
(Laughter)
(笑声)
And that is, they had barely left,
但是 他们几乎从来没有离开
and there wasn’t a trace in the sand.
他们生活的小圈子
Or imagine how different things
或者想象一下 如果大多数美国人知道
would be if most Americans
我们一直被欺骗着参加了
knew that we had been lied
过去六场战争中的四场
into four of our last six wars.
情况会有多么不同
You know, the Spanish didn’t sink the battleship Maine,
你们知道 西班牙人没有击沉缅因号战舰
the Lusitania was not an innocent vessel
卢西塔尼亚号也并不无辜
but was loaded with munitions,
而是装满了弹药
the North Vietnamese did not attack the Seventh Fleet,
北越没有攻击第七舰队
and, of course, Saddam Hussein hated al Qaeda
当然 萨达姆·侯赛因痛恨基地组织
and had nothing to do with it,
且与之毫无关系
and yet the administration convinced 45 percent of the people
而政府却让45%的人相信
that they were brothers in arms,
他们是战友
when he would hang one from the nearest lamppost.
这样他就找到了战争的理由
But I don’t want to end on a pessimistic note.
然而我不想以悲观的基调结束我的讲话
The 20th century has shown enormous cognitive reserves
20世纪展现了普通人巨大的认知储备
in ordinary people that we have now realized,
我们现在已经认识到了这一点
and the aristocracy was convinced
而贵族们曾确信
that the average person couldn’t make it,
普通人无法做到这一点
that they could never share their mindset
他们从不分享自己的思维方式
or their cognitive abilities.
或认知能力
Lord Curzon once said
寇松勋爵曾说
he saw people bathing in the North Sea,
他看到人们在北海洗澡
and he said, “Why did no one tell me
他问“为什么没人告诉我
what white bodies the lower orders have?”
怎么白人这么没秩序?”
As if they were a reptile.
他们就像爬行动物一样
Well, Dickens was right
狄更斯是对的 但他是错的
and he was wrong. [Correction: Rudyard Kipling]
[更正:鲁德亚德·吉卜林]
[Kipling] said, “The colonel’s lady and Judy O’Grady
[吉卜林]说过 “尽管肤色不同
are sisters underneath the skin.”
上校的夫人和朱迪•奥格雷迪仍是姐妹”
(Applause)
(鼓掌)

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译制信息
视频概述

现代人竟都是“天才”,而相较而言过去的人接近于智力迟钝?如今我们擅长的进行假设和用逻辑分析抽象问题,在过去竟不被人们所接受?快来看看你离高智商人才还有多远?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

成奚

审核员

审核员GEGE

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9vpqilhW9uI

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