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油画颜料为什么那么贵

Why Oil Paint Is So Expensive | So Expensive

[Narrator] Oil paint is simple.
油画颜料很简单
At its most basic, it’s just a mixture of oil and pigment.
本质上 它就是油和色素的混合物
But depending on the color and quality,
但是根据颜色和质量
A liter of this paint could cost you between $ 285 and $ 1,000.
一公升颜料的价格一般在285美元到1000美元之间
So what is it that makes this paint so special?
是什么让它如此特殊?
And why is it so expensive?
为什么它如此昂贵?
Oil paint has been used for hundreds of years.
人们使用油画颜料已有数百年历史
It’s made from a drying oil, like flaxseed, and pigment,
它是由亚麻仁油等干性油和色料制成的
Sometimes with fillers and thickeners added.
有时添加一些填充剂和增稠剂
When mixed and crushed,
调和碾碎后
These ingredients bind and thicken
这些成分会粘合并变稠
To form a permanent paint
形成永久的颜料
While the rise of oil paint is associated with the Renaissance,
虽然人们把油画的兴起与文艺复兴关联
Paintings using poppy-seed oil have been dated
但使用罂粟油颜料的画作可追溯到
As far back as seventh-century Afghanistan.
早在公元七世纪的阿富汗
But there’s one key reason this paint hasn’t ever been cheap:
但是 究其主要原因 这种颜料从未便宜过是因为
Pigments cost a lot of money.
色料太贵了
So in a good oil paint,
在好的油料里
You’re gonna be looking for a high pigment loading
需要有高含量的色料
and a good-quality pigment in that high pigment loading.
以及高质量的色料
So it doesn’t matter if you have loads of pigment if it’s a bad-quality pigment.
所以要是色料的质量不好 用再多也没用
You’re looking for lightfastness so it doesn’t fade,
色料要求耐光力好 这样就不会褪色
and tests on lightfastness that have been going on
事实上 有些色料的耐光力测试
For generations in fact, for some pigments,
已经持续了几百年
So you’re not gonna create a masterpiece
当然不会用50年后就会完全褪色的色料
and then 50 years down the line it’s completely washed out.
来创作出一幅杰作
[Narrator] The highest quality oil paint
最优质的油画颜料
Can be up to 75% pigment,
其中的色料含量可达75%
and throughout history, the most sought-after pigments
历史上最受欢迎的色料
have been worth far more than their weight in gold.
经常远贵于相同重量的金子
And that’s because they take a lot of work to discover and to make.
这是因为它们的发现和制造都不容易
The favorite imperial color in Roman times,
罗马时期的皇家贵族热衷于
Tyrian purple,
泰尔紫
was a bright pigment made from the glands of sea snails,
是一种由海蜗牛的腺体分泌的明亮色料
and it could take 12,000 snails to make just 2 grams of the color.
大约1万2千只蜗牛才能制作出2克色料
Indian yellow was originally made from
印度黄是最初从
the urine of cows fed only on mango leaves.
只吃芒果叶的牛的尿液中提取的
And in the 16th to 19th centuries,
在16世纪到19世纪间
Mummy brown was actually made with
“木乃伊棕”这种色料
The ground-up remains of Egyptian mummies,
正是用埃及木乃伊的遗体研磨而成
and while the color was perfect for some flesh tones,
尽管这种颜色很适合来描摹一些自然肌肤色
we quickly ran out of mummies to use.
但木乃伊很快就供不应求了
Pigments do dramatically change the cost,
色料对生产成本的变化影响显著
and in professional levels, you’ll have series,
从专业角度来看 它们有各种系列
So you’ll have probably a series one, well, up to series seven.
可能会有系列一一直到系列七
The higher the number, the more expensive it is.
系列数越高 价格越贵
And that’s due to the pigments, how difficult they are to obtain,
因为这与获得这些色料的难易程度
where they come from,
它们的产地
and also how in-demand they are as a product in the real world.
以及实际作为商品的需求量有关
[Narrator] Possibly the most valuable, though, was ultramarine
最有价值的色料可能是群青蓝
literally meaning “beyond the sea,”
字面意思为“海的另一边”
As it had to be mined in Afghanistan.
它必须在阿富汗开采
It was made from lapis lazuli,
群青蓝是由青金石制成的
Which in its purest pigment form can still cost up to $ 30,000 per kilo.
其纯度最高的部分可达每公斤3万美元
The gemstone was used to make the pigment
先前人们使用这种宝石来制作色料
Until a synthetic version was created in 1826,
直到1826年 人工合成的群青蓝问世
and the vibrant blue was valued so highly in the Renaissance
因为这种鲜艳的蓝色在文艺复兴时期非常昂贵
that it was generally reserved for painting the robes of the Virgin Mary.
所以通常使用在绘制圣母玛利亚的长袍上
Synthetic versions of many of these pigments have now been created,
许多色料的合成版本已经被制造出来了
and while this means many are cheaper,
这意味着有些色料会变得便宜些
some can still be difficult to produce.
但是有些还是很难制作
Cobalt blue, for example,
例如 制造钴蓝色
has to be made by heating its components to 1,200 degrees Celsius.
需把原料加热到摄氏1200度
And once you have these pigments, they’re tricky to work with.
就算有了这些色料也会发现它们很难处理
Winsor & Newton has been making oil paints for almost 200 years
温莎牛顿公司生产油画颜料已近200年了
and its factory in France produces
仅其在法国的工厂
over 5 million liters of paint each year.
每年生产的油画颜料就超过500万公升
Dominique Murzeau: In fact, produce paint is like cooking.
实际上 生产油画颜料就好比做饭
So here you have mixing, so we are mixing components
我们熔合成分
like pigments and other additives like oil.
像色料和其他助剂 比如油
We are then milling.
然后再进行研磨
So it depends. We’re using different type of machines
根据使用的材料不同 如花岗岩 陶瓷 或是钢铁
So we’re using granite, ceramic, or steel.
来选择不同类型的机器
Then we are testing, OK,
然后测试
so testing the viscosity of the grain and,
测试颜料颗粒的粘度
of course, the color.
当然 还有颜色
Hager-Suart:The whole process is so select.
全程都是非常精确严格的
So for every single pigment,
对于每一种色料
you need to handle it in a particular way.
都需要采用特定的方式去处理
So it will need a particular amount of oil with it,
加入一定量的油
and that ratio changes for every pigment.
不同的色料所需要的比例不同
And you’re going to need to grind it to a particular fineness,
将它们研磨到特定细度
and actually even with the same pigment
即使相同色料
the milling and the grinding will affect the color you have.
在经过不同程度的研磨後 会对最终的颜色产生影响
So if you overgrind you might end up with something duller,
所以如果过度研磨 可能会导致颜色变阴暗
or with another color if you grind it very fine;
再好比另一种色料 如果研磨的太细
you might end up with a purple rather than a blue.
可能最后出来是紫色而不是蓝色
[Narrator] The research and testing for these colors
这些颜色的研究和测试
can take months or even years to get right.
可能要花费数月甚至数年才能完成
Small samples of each color are made in a lab
每种颜色的样品由实验室制作
to measure consistency and lightfastness.
测量其稠度和耐光力
Above all else, the quality of oil paint needs to be reliable,
最重要的是 油画颜料的质量要足够可靠
as professional artists need to guarantee that
因为专业的艺术家需要保证
what they’re working on now will last for hundreds of years.
他们正在创作的作品可维持数百年
And despite comparatively new paints like acrylic,
尽管有像丙烯这样相对较新的颜料
oil still remains an artist favorite.
油画颜料仍然是艺术家的最爱
We’ve still got works
我们现在仍能欣赏到
that are still beautiful and relevant
那些依旧漂亮的 风韵犹存的
from the 15th century.
15世纪画作
And it’s also, it’s durable,
它们依旧经久不衰
and it has this ability to layer,
还能在刮下颜料的地方
where you can scrape back,
叠加新层
you can keep working,
继续进行创作
you can work on a piece
你可以在一件作品上创作好几年
for years and keep on redoing it,
并一直重新修改
and it gives every piece this history.
颜料赋予每一件作品历史的意义
And, you know, the materials themselves are expensive.
另外 这些颜料的材料本身就很昂贵
They’re reliable. They’re gorgeous.
它们可靠且华美
I mean, they come out of the painting at you.
我是说 他们超越了画作本身

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视频概述

油画颜料很简单。从根本上讲,它只是油和颜料的混合物。但是,根据颜色和质量的不同,一升这种油漆的价格可能在285美元到1100美元之间。虽然油画颜料的兴起与文艺复兴时期有关,但使用罂粟籽油画的历史可以追溯到七世纪的阿富汗。那么,什么使这种涂料如此特别呢?为什么这么贵?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mei Hsi (Emily)

审核员

审核员BC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iib_imkZ5fk

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