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Why Norway is full of Teslas

five were
And three of those
cabehind glass ses in luxury malls.
我在奥斯陆就待了几个小时 我大概已经见到了50辆特斯拉
I’ve been in Oslo for like a couple of hours and I’ve seen like 50 Teslas.
There’s one right there.
它们很美 它们造型很赞 它们
They’re beautiful, they’re sleek, they are
很高效 它们很快 并且它们要7万美元一辆
efficient, they’re fast and they’re $70,000.
Here comes another one up the road.
Oh yeah.
100%电力 无需汽油 它可以在5秒内
100% electricity, no gas, and it can go from like zero to 100 kilometers
从0加速至100公里 我不明白 我不擅长汽车 我不知道这是不是对的
in like five seconds. I have no idea, I’m not a car person, so I don’t know if that’s right.
2014年的挪威 特斯拉其实还破了个
Here in Norway in 2014, Tesla actually broke a record for number
单一模型单月汽车销量的记录 而且是在所有车之间 不仅仅是
of cars sold in a month for a single model, of any kind of car not just
electric cars. And you look around for a few minutes and you realize it’s not
不仅仅是特斯拉 到处都有电动汽车 我有在美国看到过
just Teslas. There are electric cars everywhere. Like, I see electric cars in
电动汽车 但没有这么夸张 噢 那有一辆特斯拉 那儿又有一辆
the United States but nothing like this. Oh, there’s a Tesla, there’s a Tesla.
There it goes.
Turns out that Oslo is actually the epicenter of electric cars generally.
你可以通过车牌分辨哪一辆是电动汽车 由“E”开头的
You can tell which cars are electric by their license plate. So this “E” at the
就是电动汽车 2016年美国新购买的车中
beginning determines if it’s electric. In 2016 in the United States of all the new
有大约1%是电动的 更有可能是0.9%
cars that were purchased about 1% were electric, more like 0.9%.
在挪威 这个数据是29% 并且只会不断上升 今年1月
In Norway it was 29% and that trend is only speeding up: in January this year the share was like
37% or something of all the cars purchased being electric.
我究竟要走去哪里 我已经在这转了好久
Where on earth have I ended up? I’ve been kind of wandering around and I feel
我感觉我像是要走进一条秘密隧道 真正的问题是 我能不能让我的无人机
like I’m about to enter a secret cave. The real question is can I fly my drone
飞越这个壮观的大瀑布 我还没有在挪威试飞过无人机 来看看结果如何吧
over this amazing waterfall? I’ve never flown a drone in Norway before so we’ll see how this goes.
挪威99%的电力来源于水力发电 像是水坝
99% of Norway’s electricity comes from hydropower which is like dams.
因此你们拥有廉价的清洁能源 可以用来驱动这些电动汽车
So you have really cheap clean energy that can be used to power these electric cars.
这里真正核心的问题是 路上有这么多特斯拉和
The real core explanation here, the reason why there are so many Teslas and so many
electric cars on the road comes down to government policy.
The government incentivizes very very strongly people to buy electric cars.
这以不同形式展现出来:如果你驾驶一辆电动汽车 你可以免费停车
This happens in various forms: you get free parking if you drive an electric
car, you get access to the HOV Lane, which has way less traffic,
你不用付登记费 你的个人所得税可以得到减免
you don’t have to pay registration fees, you get tax deductions on your income tax,
and perhaps the biggest incentive of all is on the business side: companies like
不需要付消费税 如果它们在挪威销售 因此
Tesla don’t have to pay sales tax for selling here in Norway and so all of
这些综合在一起 使得在挪威购买一辆特斯拉
this combined makes it actually way way cheaper for someone to buy a Tesla here
in Norway than to buy one in the United States.
探索这块随意的小地方很有趣 我觉得这整个旅程
Well it’s been fun exploring this random little area I think the big takeaway
最大的收获就是 就算恶徒也会哭
from this whole entire journey so far is even thugz cry.
所以 记住吧:即使恶徒也会哭
So just remember: even thugz cry.
好吧 这可能是我目前最喜欢的景象
Alright, this is perhaps my favorite sight so far.
在奥斯陆 像这样的充电站有2000个
There are 2,000 of these charging stations here in Oslo.
—不好意思 我能问你几个问题吗? 我太好奇了 我能录音吗? —嗯 当然
-Excuse me can I ask you a couple, I’m so curious about – can I record it?
-Yeah, of course.
—这些都是免费的 —这个免费?
—对的 免费
-So it’s it’s all free. -It’s free?
-Yeah, it’s free.
这就是你买电动汽车会获得的 你可以免费充电
This is what you get from buying an electric car. You get free charging and
you can go in and out of Oslo without paying for the “bompenger” (toll).
All of these subsidies we’re talking about that, help fund these electric cars are funded
by what’s called sovereign wealth fund. It’s this huge fund that Norway has it’s
大概有一万亿美元 政府拥有这笔基金 这基本上他们的
worth almost a trillion dollars. The government owns it it’s basically their
应急基金 他们就是这样提供资金的
rainy day fund and this is what they use to fund the subsidies.
The sovereign wealth fund in Norway is comprised almost entirely of oil money,
油气资金和化石燃料构成 挪威是油气的生产大国
oil and gas money, fossil fuels. Norway’s a huge producer of oil and gas and they sell
他们向其他国家卖出油气 获得利润
that to other countries and reap the benefits in terms of revenue and put
投入主权基金 进而流入电动汽车补贴中
that into the sovereign wealth fund which then gets funneled into subsidies
因此 他们并没有在自己的土地上燃烧石油 释放二氧化碳
for electric cars. So they’re not burning the oil here and releasing carbon into
the atmosphere but they’re sending off to go be burned somewhere else.
让我问问我朋友托尔对这个的看法托尔 挪威成为这样一个
I asked my friend Tor what he thinks about this. Tor, what do you feel about Norway being
绿色可持续社会 但极度依赖化石燃料来维持现状
this green sustainable society, but really depending at the end of the day
on fossil fuels in order to make that happen?
Is that a tension within the Norwegian psyche? So I think the way we resolve it
基本是 世界需要石油 它需要 你知道的 有很多
is basically that the world needs oil. It needs, you know there’s a lot of
发展中国家:中国、印度 他们总是需要能源
countries are developing: China, India, that will always need energy and we
would argue that we extract it more greenly than other countries.
我们确实是在消费良知 但这优于
We’re buying good conscience for sure yeah but like it’s better than
其它任何事 我们心知肚明 那些谈论的绿色转移
doing anything. We’re fully aware that there’s like green shift we’re talking
是由石油资金赞助的 我们一点都没有忘记这个讽刺
about is funded by you know oil money. The irony is not lost on us in any way.
所以我认为托尔是对的 我觉得挪威向其它国家出口碳排放量
So I think Tor is right — I think that the fact that Norway is exporting its carbon
的事实 并不会磨灭他们在这里做的
footprint to other countries, it doesn’t cancel out all of the wonderful
progressive green things that they’re doing here.
这是一个关于激励、绿色基建和绿色社会的故事 但也是一个
This is a story about incentives and green infrastructure and a green society but it’s also a story
about how fossil fuels continue to make the world go round.
我很累了 还在倒时差 大概有23个小时没睡了
I am tired and jet-lagged and haven’t slept in like twenty three hours.
我要上床了 今天追着特斯拉还是很有趣的 明天我们要去北极啦
I’m gonna go to bed. It was a fun day chasing Teslas. Tomorrow, we go to the North Pole.